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Apricot fruit chilling injuries during the cold storage affected by harvest maturity
Published December 19, 2019

The study aimed to find the effect of different maturity classes (up to the days after full blossom) on the post-harvest life of 3 different apricot varieties Gold Cot, Bergarouge and Flavor Cot in Hungary. The fruit harvested in a particular time 65, 75 and 85 days after full blossom and divided to three maturity classes (Class 1, 2 and 3, res...pectively). Fruit stored in cold storage for 7 days at temperature 1 °C. Fruits were investigated in regard to physical parameters (weight loss, fruit firmness and soluble solid content SSC) and chilling injuries. The results showed that the varieties followed different ways in regard to response to different maturity classes. The maturity class I for all the tested varieties recorded the lowest weight loss, while with the increasing maturity stage the weight loss percentage for all the varieties recoded high values. The firmness decreased with delayed harvesting for all the varieties. Data of the chilling injuries showed that all the fruits which harvested at maturity I, recorded the highest percentage of fruit with CI (chilling injuries) at 0 (48.5, 37.25 and 38.75%) and CI class I (44.75, 35.75 and 39.75%) for Bergarouge, Gold Cot, and Flavor Cot.

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Results with the establishment of in vitro culture of Leucojum aestivum
Published May 15, 2007

Leucojum aestivum is a native, protected ornamental and medicinal plant in Hungary and in Ukraine too. The aim of our work was to establish in vitro cultures of this bulbous plant. Prior to surface sterilisation the old leaves and roots were dissected from the bulbs and they were stored in a refrigerator (2-3°C) for different periods ...(1 week for the first starting experiment and 5 weeks for the second one). After sterilisation, bulbs, bulb scales and leaves of the bulbs were placed on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium with 1 mg/1 benzyl-adenine (BA) and 0,1 mg/1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). At the first starting experiment 81,3%, and at the second one 92,3% of the explants turned to be sterile. Bulblets and roots were developed on the explants in the case of using bulb plates together with bulb scales and leaves as inoculua. The best result was achieved after 5 weeks chilling and it was possible to gain little bulbs from the bulb leaves too.

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Physiological and biochemical evolution of peach leaf buds during dormancy course under two contrasted temperature patterns
Published September 26, 2006

Budbreak anomalies in temperate fruit trees grown under mild conditions have often been described. However, only few authors approached the physiological evolution of leaf buds all along the dormancy period according to the temperature pattern. The aim of this study was to characterize the evolution of peach leaf bud dormancy through some physi...ological and biochemical parameters under temperate winter conditions and under total cold deprivation after the endodormancy onset. Two treatments were applied in peach trees cv. Redhaven: (i) Regular Chilling Amounts — RCA and (ii) Total Chilling Deprivation — TCD. Buds were sampled periodically from different parts of the stem (terminal, medium and basal ones). We recorded the evolution of: carbohydrate concentrations (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sorbitol and starch), respiration rate, water contents and energy metabolism (ATP and ADP ratio). The dynamics of these parameters were compared and correlated with dormancy evolution ("one node cuttings" test) and budbreak patterns in plank:. The endodormancy intensity of terminal buds was significantly lower than those of median and basal buds in early October. Under RCA treatment, this gradient faded and the bud endodormancy release was completed at the same time in all positions along the stem. Thereafter, the "cuttings" test indicated that terminal buds grew slightly faster than median and basal buds, and, consistently, budbreak in planta started with the terminals buds, followed by the medians and then by the basal ones. The carbohydrate contents showed a transitory change only when the buds began to grow after the endodormancy was released under RCA. Respiration, water content and ATP/ADP changed dynamics only under RCA and only after the end of the endodormancy (their respective changes were very parallel). The dynamics of none of the tested parameters could be related with the endodormancy dynamics, but respiration, water content and ATP/ADP could be consistent markers of the actual bud growth before bud break (in this respect, ATP/ADP could not show differences between the terminal and axillary buds while respiration and water content could).

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Erratic fruit set in almond under warm climates
Published April 22, 2014

The cause for the erratic yields of the two main almond cultivars grown in Morocco has been searched in order to recommend possible solutions for a high and stable production. The lack of sufficient bloom overlap between ‘Marcona’ and ‘Fournat de Brézenaud’ in many years may be one of the reasons of this erratic behavior, but not the o...nly one, as the same behaviour may be observed in two simultaneously blooming cultivars, ‘Ferragnès’ and ‘Ferraduel’. The relatively high temperatures observed during the blooming period
significantly reduced the stigma receptivity of these cultivars and, as a consequence, their effective pollination period, showing that stigmatic receptivity is a limiting factor for fruit set in ‘Marcona’ and ‘Ferragnès’ and their subsequent yield reduction under warm conditions. Thus, in the present context of global warming, the search for cultivars tolerant to heat stress during flowering will acquire a special interest, as well as the combination of cultivars with the same chilling and heat requirements to ensure a simultaneous bloom.

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The effect of storage to optical properties in case of two apple fruit varieties
Published July 2, 2016

The keeping quality of fruits is a very important factor in storage point of view, since it could be elongated the consumption time of fruits. In many cases the storage may be necessary, e.g. in short time it is not able to market due to the rich harvest, or all fruits could sell in markets throughout the year. The keeping quality of various fr...uit species is greatly different; moreover it could be observed some differences between the varieties as well. In our research, we have investigated the spectral properties of the external surface and fl esh of two ripe apple varieties – Jonagored and Granny Smith – before and after storage (about 3°C and about three weeks). The hyperspectral investigation was carried out with AvaSpec-2048 Fiber Optic Spectrometer. The experimental results represented the differences between healthy and chilling injured apple fruits. Furthermore, some indices were created to given countenance to the spectral differences.

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Contributions to the resumption of growth in ecodormant buds of apple
Published June 6, 2000

The resumption of development in ecodormant buds in terms of establishing a functional vascular connection between the inflorescence primordia and spur tissues in apple trees was investigated. Differentiation of the xylem elements could be observed first in the pedicel of the flower primordium, in the middle of January. Much later (at the begin...ning of April) there were mature xylem vessels in the wall of the receptacle and, merely a procambial strand for the ovule primordium which was at this time an undifferentiated protrusion of meristematic cells, only. As for phenological development of buds incubated at a temperature of 20 °C, it was the slowest in buds sampled in January, faster in buds sampled in the middle of February and, buds from the middle of March responded very quickly. The function of temperatures needed both for xylem differentiation and for the flower primordium to achieve maturity is pointed out. The nature of frost damage in vessel elements, as well the relationship between chilling requirement and growth features of apple cultivars will be discussed.

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Effect of modified atmosphere package on apricot fruit storability
Published December 9, 2018

The aim of this work was to study the effect of modified atmosphere package (MAP) on apricot storability. Apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Jumbo cot were harvested at commercial ripening stage. The fruits were treated with different storage treatments as following: i) control storage for 13 days at 1 °C, ii) stored fruit at 1 ...C for 10 days then 3 days at shelf at 25 °C, iii) fruit stored in MAP at 1 °C for 13 days and iv) fruit stored in MAP at 1 °C for 10 days then 3 days at shelf at 25 °C. Data showed the positive effect of MAP in keeping the apricot fruit for long time with better quality than the control fruit. MAP showed positive effect by recording the lowest fruit weight loss, the highest firmness and lowest chilling injury and fruit decay.

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