Search



Show Advanced search options Hide Advanced search options
Effect of over tree cooling irrigation on ‘Bosc’ pear orchards microclimate
Published July 2, 2016
153-156.

Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful infl uence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation signifi cantly decreases the plants’ surfa...ce temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The benefi cial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Bosc pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets infl uenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, fl owers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Bosc pear variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured pears yields.

Show full abstract
146
141
Cooling irrigation as a powerful method for microclimate modification in apple plantation
Published March 15, 2011
33-37.

Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful influence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface... temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. InMarch 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Gala apple orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, flowers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low.At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Gala apple variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured apple yields.

Show full abstract
192
165
Scheduling of irrigation in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) using canopy temperature
Published March 14, 2005
89-94.

The present paper evaluates the result of irrigation experiments carried out on snap beans sown in spring and summer and grown with and without irrigation. The experiments were run over the course of 12 years. In the average of 12 years, the yield was 2.8t ha-I for spring sown and 1.9 t ha-I in summer-sown plants without i...rrigation. The lowest level of profitable production, the 5.5t ha-I was reached twice in the case of spring sowing and only once in the case of summer sowing. Profitable yield production can be ensured only with regular irrigation and thus the yield may be increased by 4-5 times. In four of the twelve years we determined the canopy surface temperature of snap bean stands with and without irrigation. A Raynger II infrared remote thermometer determined the canopy surface temperature every day at 13.00 hours. The canopy temperature can well characterize the water supply of plant stands. This parameter may be used for describing the degree of drought and the water turnover of plant stands with different water supply. The positive values of foliage-air temperature differences (SDD) numerically express the degree of drought and the water supply of the crops. The results indicated that a 1 °C higher SDD value may cause 90-130 kg/ha yield loss.

Show full abstract
92
137
Effect of water supply on canopy temperature, stomatal conductance and yield quantity of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Published September 6, 2010
13-15.

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most extensively cultivated horticultural crops in the world.Water supply is important for yield quantity and quality. The aims of the present study were 1) to evaluate the canopy temperature and the stomatal conductance on processing tomato substances with different water supply, 2) to inves...tigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. There were two irrigated treatments, one of them was the reguralry irrigated plant stand which got 333 mm water during investigated period, including the precipitation and the other was the cut off substance which means the irrigation (drip) was stopped at the beginning of the ripening process and there was a control as well which got 189 mm precipitation. The canopy temperature was measured row by row with a Raytek MX 4 type infrared remote thermometer. The stomatal conductance was measured by Delta-T AP4 type porometer. There were significant differences between the control and irrigated plants according to the water supply which was formulated the canopy values. The plants with a deficient water supply were decreased the transpiration rate, therefore its cooling effect didn’t show up. The regularly irrigated tomato plants’ yield exceeded the unirrigated ones more than twice. It is emerged from the study that the irrigation has a positive effect on the amount of the harvestable yield in this year type.

Show full abstract
155
184
Microclimatic studies on different aged apple plantations
Published February 19, 2008
7-11.

The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees ...towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.

Show full abstract
145
135
The effect of summer pruning on solar radiation conditions in apple orchards
Published September 26, 2006
87-91.

The aim of this study was to measure the solar radiation conditions in the tree and around the tree of pruned (summer pruning) and unpruned trees in an intensive apple orchard. When observing the daily trend of global radiation measured, there was a great reduction at midday hours due to the shadowing effect of the canopy. The reduction reached... 70-75% before pruning, while after pruning it was only 20-25%. The relative radiation supply of the canopy space on cloudy days in the morning and late afternoon hours was higher than that of the sunny days. Mean differences between the day and night temperature reduced greatly in the period of intensive fruit colouration in August and September both in the plant stock and outside the plant stock.

Show full abstract
155
181
1 - 6 of 6 items