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Investigation of flowering dynamics of the basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its consequences in production
Published May 24, 1999
74-80.

The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.

According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishabl...e phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.

An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.

The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.

The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.

The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).

 

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Mutation induction in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by fast neutron irradiation
Published July 29, 2019
30-38.

Basil species are highly sensitive to exterior environmental conditions and its consequences lead to great economic and agronomic losses. In this research, a mutation method was optimized out for creating a new variety of Ocimum basilicum L., which could tolerate the extreme/extraordinary climatic circumstances or biotic stresses, such... as fungal diseases. Fast neutron irradiation was performed on the Hungarian commercial variety seeds with doses of 5 to 60 Gray and grown into fully developed plants. Numerous phenotypical changes like deformed congestion, leaf mutation, and low growth occurred, especially at higher dosages. Then to confirm whether the plantlets had mutation or not, and to detect the molecular variation and relationship, fingerprinting profiles of the developed mutant regenerants and donor plant have been assessed using ISSR markers. 115 loci were yielded, ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 kb, out of which 110 loci were polymorphic in nature, representing 95.6% polymorphism. The most suitable primer to determine the genetic diversity within the Ocimum species was the UBC-856 with 0.42 PIC and 4.1 MI values.

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102
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In vitro effect of different cytokinin types (BAP, TDZ) on two different Ocimum basilicum cultivars explants
Published December 19, 2019
15-20.

Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ ...(Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.

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Effects of different levels of NaCl and CaCl2 on seed germination characteristics of Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L.
Published September 6, 2010
21-25.

More than 15 million hectares of Iran’s land areas are suffering from salinity.We investigated the effects of two types of salt (NaCl, CaCl2) in different levels on the germination and initial growth of two medicinal and aromatic plants, Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. The experiment was carried out in Qazvin Agriculture and Na...tural Resource Research Center based on a randomized complete block design, for 14 days in a germinator. Sweet basil germinated above 50% in each saline treatment (EC=10 dSm-1), in alkali treatment (CaCl2=18800 mg/L) and in sodic-saline treatment (Ec=10 dSm-1; SAR=5.6), however at the highest concentrations germination was slowed down. Lemon balm showed a higher sensitivity: except the lowest NaCl treatment, each other ones inhibited germination and its rate to some extent. The combined treatments of both salts increased the stress reactions. However, seedling growth was less effected. The results showed a stimulating effect of NaCl treatment in 2500 mg/L (EC<5 dSm-1) for both species concerning germination and seedling growth.

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Floral biology of medicinal plants II. Lamiaceae species
Published June 6, 2000
137-140.

Several species in the Lamiaceae family are therapeutically significant medicinal plants. Such as sage (Salvia officinalis L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), peppermint (Moldier piperita L.). marjoram (Majomna hortensis Winch), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Origanum spp., hyssop (H...yssopus officinalis L.), Lavandula spp., basil (Ocimum basalicum L.), lemon-balm (Melissa officinalis L.) are regularly produced in Hungary. Nevertheless, data on their floral biology are not satisfactory. This review intends to gather information on the characteristic constitution of flowers and inflorescences, blooming dynamics, pollination mechanism and crossability of some of the most significant medicinal and spice species

Flowers are mainly hermaphrodite, however, also monoeceous ones are turning up: pistillate flowers marjoram, tyme, oregano. In flowering of a plant individual, a basipetal blooming sequence is described. These species have a floral structure fully adapted to pollination by insects, and the majority of them is an excellent honey-plant (lavandel, hyssop, sage, etc.).

Flowers exhibit characteristic proterandry, therefore autogamy is considered to be almost impossible, and geintonogamy as well as xenogamy to be the most characteristic ways of fertilization. However, in several cases self-fertilization proved to be also successful. Crossability among cultivars or species is depending on the genotype combination and usually produces less seed than the above forms of fertilization.

 

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