In contrast to most angiosperms, Torenia contains a naked embryo sac and therefore has been considered since many years as an exciting model plant to study the double fertilization process of flowering seed plants. It is thus not surprising that the isolation of protoplasts from the female gametophyte has been reported already 20 years ago by M...ol, the isolation of megaspores and megagametophytes has been published by the authors of this manuscript in 1996 and in 1999. The isolation of the male gametophyte and of sperm cells was published by the authors in 2004. The isolation of viable Torenia sperm cells is a crucial part of the elaboration of an in vitro fertilization system. Torenia sperm cells were isolated from in vivo — in vitro cultured pollen tubes. In this system pollen tubes first grow inside a cut style then follow their elongation in a solid isolation medium. The medium contained agarose in order to detain pollen tube contents. Released sperm cells and enzymatically isolated egg cells were collected and handled using glass micropipettes and transmitted to an electrofusion apparatus or polyethylene glycol containing media for fusion probes.
Hungary is a country with excellent ecological potentials and with rich traditions in vegetable production. The total vegetable production area comprises about 100 000 ha and annual production amounts to 1.4-1.8 million tons, 75-80% comes from fields and the rest from forcing. Approximately 40 species are produced, but only 20 of them play a do...minant role. The most important ones arc: sweet corn, peas, peppers, watermelon, onions, tomatoes, gherkin, carrots, beans, white cabbage.
40-45% of the total production is processed, 20-30% sold on the fresh market and 30% exported.
Vegetable production is based on rural farms of 1-5 ha average acreage. It provides living for about 70-100 000 families. The low number of producers' organisations is a major setback.
Profitability of vegetable production is rather low. Production costs are high, wholesale prices are depressed.
Vegetables are produced for the industry by contract. Fresh vegetables are sold through local markets (15-20%), the wholesale market (decreasing importance) and direct marketing (35-40%).
Against the self-sufficiency of the country there is a seasonal import of vegetables mainly in winter and early springtime.
Hungarian legal regulations are harmonized with the EU directives, EU standards are accepted and applied, traditionally good market connections and cooperation with several EU countries enable the country to be a partner of EU vegetable growers.
Authors dealt more than ten years with the analysis of supercritical extracts. For extraction (SFE) carbon dioxide was used as supercritical solvent. Fractionation of extracts was carried out by releasing the separations pressure at two stages. The extracts were collected as separate samples successively in time.
The traditional extract...ions were carried out with steam distillation or by using n-hexane and ethanol in Soxhlet apparatus. For the analysis of volatile compounds GC, GC-MS; of non volatile compounds TLC-densitometry and spectroscopic methods were used.
The following general characteristics were established comparing the composition of steam distillated oils with that of volatile SFE fractions. The SFE fractions were richer in monoterpene-esters and poorer in alcohols than the essential oils prepared by traditional way (clary sage, lavandel). Regarding the distributi,n of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds, the SFE fractions contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbon in higher percentage than the distillated oils (e.g. 13-caryophyllene in Salvia fruticosa, (3-caryophyllene, ymuurolene, y-cadinene in Ochnum basilicum). Further the proportion of sesquiterpenes increased in SFE fractions collected successively in time.Significant difference was remarkable in respect of the optical rotationability of lovage oil and SFE fraction which was probably caused by the different ratio between the two ligustilid enantiomers. It was verified in some cases that a part of mono- and sesquiterpenes were present originally in a bounded form (glycosides) in plants. Therefore they appeared in essential oil fractions only after previous acidic treatment (Thymus, Origanum species). During the supercritical extraction the azulenogene sesquiterpene lactones did not transform to azulenes (in chamomile, yarrow), but the non volatile SFE fractions of some Asteraceae plant contained sesquiterpene--lacton of unchanged structure in high quantity (e.g. cnicin in blessed thistle, parthenolide in feverfew). Authors obtained also SFE fractions which were rich in triterpenoids and phytosterols (marigold, common dandelion).