The expropriation is a neglected legal institution in the Hungarian law, especially in the civil law. Although the expropriation usually appears in the civil law codes of the European states, it is ambiguous of the aspect of the civil law. However, it cannot be ignored that the civil law aspects of the expropriation are very important.In the civil law literature the expropriation is discussed either as the original way of acquisition of property or as the limit of the public property relations.My lecture is about the theoretical problems of the expropriation in the system of civil law. This article will provide an overview of doctrinal opinions about expropriation law in the delayed codification and in the new Hungarian civil law codex.
The paper introduces the most recent processes taking place within the Hungarian public administration from a special aspect and follows the system of the authorities of the misdemeanor law from the 19th century to nowadays. It presents the system of the monarchy, the councils and the period after the change of regime. The Constitutional Court with its Resolution no. 63/1997 (XII. 12.) declared the dual nature of offences – being against public administration and bagatelle cases pertaining to criminal law – and although with a different legal reasoning, it prescribed the right of access to court in both cases. The mentioned separation has resulted in conceptual problems exerting their influence to this day, at the same time the majority of authors dealing with this field instead of the majority opinion accepted the concurrent explanation of László Sólyom, to which Constitutional Court Judges János Németh and Tamás Lábady also joined. In 2012, however, several important changes took place simultaneously. The new Act on Offenses shifted towards criminal law while it terminated the right of local governments to regulate offenses. In parallel with this, the Act on Local Governments at the beginning provided an opportunity for the local governments to sanction anti-social behavior which was revoked by the Constitutional Court in the same year. The paper investigates the effect of the decisions of the Constitutional Court and analyzes the opportunities of public administration within the present legal framework to apply sanctions and defines those criteria on the basis of which the legislator could settle the current situation.
My essay analyses the rules of the wage-rise in the Hungarian health service system performed in two stages in 2012 and 2013. The difficulties of applying the rules and the continuous changes in the law are presented from a practical viewpoint.
The personal and material scope of the raise in the health sector was the same circle: higher education institutions and religious institutions performing public mission that provide for in- and out-patient care. The wage-rise affected the employees having service relations with the above mentioned institutes in civil servant and commissionaire positions.
In 2012 altogether86.000 persons benefitted from the raise (67.978 of them were directly involved in the healthcare), and 95.000 persons in 2013. The Act LXXXIV of 2003 distinguishes three groups of employees regarding the continuous and retroactive (ex post facto) raise of wages: doctors, graduates, pharmacists and health workers. In the case of these groups no uniformed wage scale exists, so different rules must be applied.
The retroactive wager is in the case of the doctors depended on their salary, and the continuous rise was realized by a new wage scale. Other graduates and pharmacists gained a fixed rise. The retro active rise of the health workers was also fixed, the continuous wage rise was realized through a new wage scale and it depended whether their legal relation with the employer was established before or after the 1st of the July 2012.
The complicated and frequently inaccurate regulation was corrected by the legislator, when a uniformed wage scale was directed to each group of employees in the September of 2013. A new sectoral wage scale was applied for the doctors and the health workers, and for other graduates and pharmacists the old public wage scale must be applied.
Contrary to the uniformed regulation, there still remained legal institutions where the day/night duty, readiness, shift bonus, overtime must be specified according to the legislations in force on the 30th of June, 2012.
Summing up, the legislator finally prevented the emigration of the highly qualified specialists by the execution of the wage rise in the last two years.
In my research paper I study the Hungarian constitutional processes. The subjects of my analysis are three periods, namely the change of the political system in 1989, the constitutional attempts from 1994 to 1998, and the constitutional process between 2010 and 2011.
The processes are examined on the basis of the two notions: “legality” and “legitimacy”. Under the concept “formal legality”, I mean the legal validity of the constitutional process; i.e. whether the constitutional process takes place in accordance with the current legislation. The concept of “legitimacy” has two aspects. On the one hand, empirical legitimacy investigates whether the citizens de facto accept the constitution and value it as respectable independently of the normative motives of its acceptance. On the other hand, normative legitimacy examines whether the constitution is based on justifiable principles and whether it might be considered as legally binding.
The constitutional process in 1989 - aimed at establishing a democratic transition – took place within round-table discussions of the representatives of the old system and the strengthened opposition. As a result of the radical changes, the democratic Constitution was established in Hungary and the multi-party system also developed. The outcome of the discussions was the general supervision of the Constitution. Formally, there was only an amendment to the Constitution in 1989; however, as regard its content, a completely new norm was established.
Since the change of the political system in 1989, the idea of creating a new constitution emerges again and again in the Hungarian public life. In the course of the elections in 2010, a party alliance (in which both parties represented the same political line) reached the required two-thirds majority in the Parliament, and aimed at establishing a new constitution. The result of the constitutional process is a completely new constitution (both the form and the content of the previous constitution were changed).
All things considered, it can be stated that the amendment to the Constitution in 1989 was accepted lawfully by the Parliament of the old system, i.e. the constitutional process was legal, and in a normative sense, a legitimate Constitution was created. In 2011, the Fundamental Law of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország Alaptörvénye) was adopted on the basis of the procedure determined by the Constitution in 1989, i.e. the constitutional process was legal, though; the present research paper highlights some elements of the constitutional process that might be criticized. At present, the legitimacy of the Fundamental Law of Hungary is controversial from both sociological and normative perspectives.
Privacy has become a hot topic in personality rights protection in the 21st century all over the world. Classic personality rights did not cover all aspects of modern privacy law and the lack of an exhaustive list for personality rights also left many questions unanswered. The right to privacy is hard to define and it is even more difficult to identify the limits of this sensitive right. Our goal is to analyze various definitive attempts to privacy and synthetize them with actual judicial practice in order to get closer to what privacy law truly covers in modern jurisdictions. Even if brand new challenges arise almost every day, privacy remains a powerful instrument to provide autonomy to individuals and sometimes to legal entities.
Der Aufsatz stellt die Strafjustiz der ersten Jahrhunderte nach der ungarischen Staatsgründung, des Zeitalters der Könige aus dem Hause Árpád im Spiegel der römischen und westeuropäischen, besonders der fränkischen Rechtsentwicklung vor. Er untersucht neben der Entstehung des ungarischen Gerichtssystems die Ordnung des Strafverfahrens, eingehend auf die Ladung, die Beweisverfahren, besonders die Gottesurteile, den Gerichtsbeschluss und den Rechtsbehelf.
Die Arbeit ist rechtsgeschichtlichen Inhalts, aber wo es möglich ist, und Parallelen gezogen werden können, vergleicht sie solche Einrichtungen des ehemaligen und modernen Rechts miteinander, die während der Rechtsentwicklung unverändert Teil des Strafprozesses geblieben sind.
Dem einleitenden Teil folgend geht sie als Erstes auf den Begriff und Zweck des Strafverfahrens ein; diesen Zweck definiert sie nach den literarischen Quellen als die Belangung der die Staatsordnung verletzenden Person.
Auf die geschichtliche Entwicklung besonders des Zivilrechts, aber auch des Strafrechts hatten die römisch-rechtlichen Wurzeln großen Einfluss. Der Aufsatz bietet einen Überblick über die organisatorischen und prozessualen Grundlagen der römischen Strafjustiz, sowie die einzelnen Straftaten und die ihre Beurteilung regelnden Normen. Es wird betont, dass bereits im römischen Recht solche konstitutionelle, den europäischen Standards entsprechende Prinzipien zur Geltung kamen, wie die Öffentlichkeit der Verhandlung oder das Recht auf Verteidigung.
Nach der Analyse der römisch-rechtlichen Grundlagen wird die Entwicklung des mittelalterlichen europäischen Strafrechts untersucht. Die Rechtsgeschichte, die Rechtsentwicklung Kontinentaleuropas hatte bedeutenden Einfluss auf die Regeln des ungarischen Strafprozessrechts. Besondere Hervorhebung verdient in diesem Teil das Recht des Fränkischen Reichs.
Nach der Beleuchtung des europäischen strafrechtlichen Hintergrunds analysiert der Aufsatz die Strafjustiz der Könige aus dem Hause Árpád. Er stellt die Entwicklung des Gerichtssystems, die Rechtsprechung durch den König, dann durch die Großwürdenträger, die Entstehung des ordentlichen Gerichtssystems und der Gerichte auf dem Land vor, hinweisend darauf, dass bereits zu Anfang der Herrschaft der Könige aus dem Hause Árpád solche wichtigen königlichen Dekrete erlassen wurden, die die Entwicklung des Strafrechts wesentlich bestimmt haben.
Nach dem Überblick des Gerichtssystems untersucht die Arbeit einzelne wichtige Rechtsinstitute des Strafprozessrechts. Eine solche grundlegende Einrichtung ist die Beiladung, die der Ladung des modernen Rechts entspricht. Die Adeligen konnten ausschließlich durch ordnungsgemäße Ladung beigeladen werden, im Gegensatz zu den Leibeigenen, in deren Strafsachen der Gutsherr aufgerufen wurde, sie vor Gericht zu stellen.
Sehr wichtige Rechtsinstitute des Strafverfahrens sind des Weiteren die einzelnen Beweisverfahren, die anfangs in Gottesurteilen sakraler Charakter wie den Proben beziehungsweise dem Zweikampf in Erscheinung traten. Neben den Gottesurteilen können als weitere Beweisverfahren der Reinigungseid sowie der formelle Zeugenbeweis erwähnt werden, aber schon früh bekannt war auch der Urkundenbeweis.
Der Aufsatz unterzieht die Urteilsfindung im Prozess separat einer Untersuchung, hervorhebend, dass im Verfahren gegen den Adeligen die Öffentlichkeit zur Geltung kam, seit König Béla III. wurde über die Verhandlung sogar Protokoll geführt. Um ein Urteil musste das Gericht ersucht werden, und es wurde vom Gericht gefällt.
Die Arbeit berührt schließlich einzelne wichtige Fragen des Rechtsbehelfs mit der Bemerkung, dass vom Rechtsbehelf im modernen Sinne genommen im Zeitalter der Könige aus dem Hause Árpád noch nicht gesprochen werden kann. Das Rechtsmittel zielte zu dieser Zeit noch nicht auf die Beseitigung der Fehlentscheidung, sondern konnte die Justizverweigerung seitens des Gerichts oder gewisse Formwidrigkeiten beanstanden.
Der Verbraucherschutz korrigiert durch die rechtliche Regelung, durch Ausbau eines interdisziplinieren Rechtsinstrumentsystems versichert es Rechtsschutz für die Verbraucher in schwächerer Position. Durch rechtlichen Instrumenten wird die optimale Gleichgewichtslage wiederherstellt, demnoch werden die optimalen Verhältnisse geschafft, unter denen die Verbraucher freie Kaufsentscheidungen treffen können und nach eigenen Bedürfnissen „konsumieren” können. Die modernen Rechtsysteme haben als eigenes das ideale Leitbild des Schutzes der schwächeren Partei, diesbezüglich der Schutz vom hohen Niveau der Verbraucherinteressen kann als dritte Generation der Menschenrechte begriffen werden. Also der Verbraucherschutz wurde inzwischen die Sicherung für Lebensniveau der Europabürger und dient neulich auch als Mittel erneuerter Impulze für europäische Wirtschaft zu geben.
Ziel dieses Artikels ist zu untersuchen, ob irgendwelche Harmonisierung in Rahmen einer Rahmenrichtlinie oder Vereinheitlichung der Verbraucherrechte in Europa eigentlich verwirklich werden könnte. Vor den Feststellungen der endgültigen Konklusionen müssen wir genau anschauen ob die europäischen Verbraucherregelungen gemeinsame Wurzeln oder gemensame Instrumente verfügen. Diesmal dient es als Kerngebiet meiner Forschung.
After the creation of the Basic Law of Hungary, and following a drawn discussion Act CLXXV of 2011 on the Right of Association and the Operation and Funding of Civil Society organizations has come into force (hereinafter referred to as Civil Act). The Civil Act repealed a lot former provitions, thus the Act II. of 1989 on the Right of Association, the law concerning non-profit status, and the provitions related to association of the previous Civil Code. The new Act V of 2013 in the Civil Code has also brought significant changes according to associations.
The base of the rules has changed considerabely, as the permissive legislation, and the freedom of the parties has become the main line.
At present to association the Civil Act, the new regulations about the court registration of associations – such as Act CLXXXI of 2011 –, and the provisions concerning legal persons and associations of the new Civil Code should be applied.
Since the relevant legal regulation has changed, the previous judicial practice is not applicable, courts have to answer the questions among the new legal circumstances as well. However it is sure that the basis of association is the right of association which is a constitutional fundamental right. Due to these significant changes in this paper I have examined those important Constitutional Court Rulings which can be connected with the right of association, and I have tried to compare the decisions of the Constitutional Court with the new present regulation.
The aim of the current article is to analyse the protection of indigenous peoples’ rights offered by the African human rights mechanism by introducing the Endorois Welfare Council vs. Kenya case (hereafter: Endorois case). The author briefly introduces the preliminaries of the Endorois case, namely how the African mechanism was established and in doing so, he refers to the achievements of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (hereafter: Commission) in the field of protecting the rights of the African indigenous peoples, also touching upon the critiques regarding its functioning. Then he briefly introduces why the Ogoni casecan be regarded as a milestone concerning the rights of indigenous peoples on the African Continent. In the second part, the author focuses on the Endorois case and analyses it in detail: he introduces both the matters of fact and the legal issues; furthermore he pays attention to the implementation of the decision. Finally, in the third part of the article, the author draws his conclusions based on the above mentioned and makes his recommendations.
The author has the opinion that the African mechanism has followed in the footsteps of the Inter-American System and has interpreted the already existing substantial norms in an evolutiv manner, thus achieving tremendous results in the acknowledgement and protection of indigenous rights. They did so with such success that now the “master” – namely the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights – is quoting the student. It follows from the above mentioned that – according to the firm opinion of the author – the African mechanism worth the attention both present time, both in the future, because new trends regarding indigenous rights could arise from the practice of the African Commission.
Man is a social animal, it is important for colleagues to meet, create a relationship with them, to communicate, ideas, exchanging information. Human relationships are determined by the identity of a specific person, place in society, so it should be a fundamental right for all people in contact with the law. However, in certain life situations exercising these rights is necessarily limited, undermined, need frameworks. One of those situations in life with participation in health care in which the patient has to adapt in health care provider operating schedule, however, the Trustee is required to ensure the exercise of the right contacts.
The most prominent of patients' rights to human dignity, which is inferred from a mother right, from which a number of other important rights. One of these is the right to self-determination, which guarantees freedom of action of the human as an individual incapacity depending autonomous. For patient care recipients should be subject to the fundamental distinction that whether it is inpatient or outpatient care. In the latter case, it also suffers from significant limitations on the patient's right to self-determination , including personal freedom, opportunities for contact with other people. The right to self-determination in a specific part of the realization of rights is thus involved in the regulation of the contact, as during inpatient care plays an important role.
In today's modern society, the means of communication, networks of past explosive development, get more involved in the exercise of the right to life, human relations than before, with the elimination of the technical obstacles the spatial and temporal obstacles easily can be prevented. Life situation of the theme chosen exercise of the right of communication is of particular importance, because the patient's recovery depends not only on only physical but also mental condition, recovery can define what social relations, quality, intensity. The correspondence law of the health care law more the privileges include such other persons entitled to take the patient's inpatient sanitation place either in writing or orally to maintain contact, to receive visitors, the people he set out to exclude the visit , prohibit the fact of his treatment or the other information related to medical treatment reveals other.
The context of the law of correspondence can be said that relatively little addressed by legislators and by expanding the scope of the practice of law in the content, but would consider appropriate where more attention is added. It would be good detailed arrangements for the exercise of creating the right framework for the so - to clarify the scope of everyday objects, to establish rules for their use of health services that are appropriate for the task to allow the exercise of these rights - the first line telecommunications.
The most important human rights were firstly defined by the French Declaration from 1789. These rights are called as first generation rights, because they guarantee the most important civil and political rights of people. The states mostly act passive in order to protect them. They create acts on their protection, special mechanisms for enforcing them. We can state that every field of law is based upon them and helps protecting the human rights.
The right to a fair trial is a first generation human right. Its regulation scheme is very complex; therefore it is a hard and a complex task to define the importance and the key functions of this right, because the laws on it are varied. Besides civil procedural law, international law, EU-law and – within national legal systems – constitutional law has also been dealing with the right to a fair trial.
In the field of international law many international and regional treaties exist on the enforcement of procedural rights. In my paper I examined the European Convention on Human Rights (hereinafter: ECHR). The ECHR is an international treaty on the protection of human rights. It was born under the auspices of the Council of Europe in 1950, Rome. From 1959 its control mechanism is the European Court of Human Rights.
In my paper I examined the proper interpretation and the actual application of the ECHR art. 6. par. 1based on the work of the international court.The article 6 of ECHR is about the right to a fair trial. In par. 1 the Convention gives a list of the most common features of a fair trial: (1) a fair and public hearing; (2) with a reasonable time; (3) the tribunal must be established by law and must meet with the requirements of independency and impartiality; (4) and finally the judgement shall be pronounced publicly. It enshrines the principle of the rule of law, upon which such a society is based and built.
The first chapter deals with problem of the interpretation of the article. I tried to give the most convenient statements, which I defined upon the case law of the ECHR. After the question of interpretation is answered, the third chapter tries to give an overview of the applicability of article 6.In this section I cited many cases of the ECHR, because the Court has been developing the question of applicability in its case law. It is because it considers the Convention as a living-organism, so the article 6. needed to be interpreted again and again during these decades.
The freedom of contract has an economic regulating rule, both on individual and on communal level; secures either the enforcement of the law of the self-determination of the parts, or the possibility of market participation.
Gwartney and Lawson, elaborators of the conception of the economic freedom, said that the capstones of the economic freedom are the freedom for the decisions and for the acts of the persons, moreover the volunteering of the exchange, the freedom of the competition, the protection of the persons and their properties.
Several indicators are available for measuring the economic freedom. One of them is the index of the Canadian Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World; furthermore it is one of the most respected indicators. This index investigates the rate of the economic freedom by using 42 factors grouped to five parts. These five components are the legal system and the protection of the ownership, size of the state, reliable, so stable valued money, the freedom of the foreign trade, the capital market and the regulation of the business. The last four items can be identified as the freedom of the contract.
The article focuses on the successions of the business shares which are in the Hungarian limited liability companies. There are several changes because of the new Civil Code that affected this area although we have to examine the former regulation because of the period of validity, too.
The succession law is the area of the law with whom every people has connection at least once in their life. The number of the legacies grows in which business shares can be founded because more and more people are participating in business societies.
The new method of the regulation differs from the previous. The new Hungarian Civil Code (Act V of 2013) consists of not only the “classical” civil law (for example property law, law of contracts) but the family law even the business law. Before this there were two separate laws and because of this situation we have to examine the relation of these laws and their methods of regulations.
Afterwards we study the state of the successors in the Hungarian limited liability companies. It diverges from the other companies because the limited liability companies are transitions between general and limited partnerships and joint-stock companies. There were more ideas how to regulate this company; at the end it has differences but not so significant.
For the first, I think that it is necessary to make clear what action is.
The action the application to the proposal of which the half interested in the debate is entitled and the court passes judgement on it. Bringing an action to the court is the prerequisite of the setting in motion of the civil action procedure.
The plaintiff asks it for the restoration of his violated subjective right practically in the action of detaining to oblige the defendant. The object of the action of detaining the claim originating from the violated subjective right, the controversial material legal contractual relationship, his content though the plaintiff’s application, that let the court oblige it defendant onto a particular activity, abstaining from it.
Basic rule: action of detaining expired in case of claims only enforceable. The action of assessment in so much action of detaining, that it positively aims at the court establishing it for the plaintiff’s right and the existence of the defendant’s asking to stay being mentioned.
It being possible to initiate action of assessments has two conditions conjunctive: the legal defence for the claim of his necessity and the impossibility of the vindication. The content and the consequences of the action of assessment considering too narrower than the action of detaining.
The plaintiff’s aim in the action of assessment, that the court clears up whether one of the contractual relationships exist with a judgement or not, it does not claim him accomplishing a defendant’s active behaviour beyond this. The deficiency of the execution follows from this, the giving onto an end which can be grown in the part of a judgement saying detaining in the legal charge only.
Verifiable, that the action of assessment independent legal defence device quality actions. Categorically cannot be declared, if action of detaining possible, assessment one is not eligible. The clarification of the situation and correcting him wait for the legislator however.
My paper is about the preferential significance and minor value actions special rules in the civil proceeding. These types of actions have several special rules compared to the general rules and have specialities compared to each. The specialities are multiple the most important is the sum in dispute. This is under 1 M florins in minor value actions and above 400 M florins in preferential significance values. These worths are too low in minor value actions and too high in preferential significance actions. This is proven by that there are almost no cases where these rules are adaptable.
These rules are simple and easy to use it but not common in civil proceedings. It is mistake because these are useful rules and these would make the actions more simple.
This essay examines the impact of the European External Action Service (EEAS) on the development of the European integration. First, the historical and institutional precedents, and the development of external institutional system of the EC (EU) are presented. Then it is mentioned in greater details which factors led to the establishment of the institution of the High Representative (HR) and its assisting European External Action Service. The EEAS’s role is analyzed and assessed primarily from the standpoint that – given its operation and power – how the creation of this institution can strengthen the achievement of a closer European integration. This issue is analyzed especially in relation with cooperation, and division of tasks and power with the other EU bodies and institutions that play decisive role in the implementation of the EU’s external actions.
In this study, first of all I am dealing with the question, how the right to personal liberty prevails in the Bűnvádi Perrendtartás, however at the beginning I would like to introduce how the law for the personal liberty formed and how it appeared in Hungary and in the international documents, so in the British, American and French law as well.
The most serious barrier of the personal liberty is the criminal law, so i find it especially important to examine that for this reason what kind of safeguards were placed into the Bűnvádi Perrendtartás.
In general it can be said that the most important guarantees of the personal liberty are found in the principles of the criminal law, for example presumption of innocence, and through this it prevails in the Bűnvádi Perrendtartás' system.
Firstable the limitation of the personal liberty has to be looked in the coercive measures, so I studied the pre-trial detention institution, that besides the basic principle what kind of safeguards were brought in by the legislature.
In the end, it can be said that the right to personal liberty influences the whole Bűnvádi Perrendtartás, and in the cases where there were limitations, they always solved it with a safeguard.
There have been different theories concerning the reasons of domestic violence and abuse.
The court as well as the police can call for restraining, which is especially established for preventing the repetition of the domestic violence.
For the treatment of the above mentioned problem there have been founded two models: the Duluth and the Austrian model.
In the memberstates of the European Committee it can be said that the strong front against the domestic violence is quite general, but the regulation is very diverse which means there is no silver bullet in the fight against it.