16. évf. , 3-4. szám (2019)
The internationalisation of the Hungarian higher education has a crucial role in the overall operation of the Hungarian higher educational system. The increasing presence of the international students at the Hungarian universities can alleviate the negative impact of the demographic decrease of the secondary students’ number in the country an...d can help the higher educational institutions to secure their needs in order to sustain their operation – mostly in an economic way.
Several dilemmas emerge with the internationalisation of the higher education globally. One of these problems is the provision of the equal access to international higher education. If the equal access is not provided – and honestly this is the actual situation in most of the countries – than the differences in the social background of the students can have a great impact on the international education possibilities. Those students who have the possibility to study abroad can earn that much benefits during their education which is unavailable for those students who can only learn in their home countries. This tendency with respect to the cultural reproduction theory can widen the gap between the different social groups and so called social classes based on economic but not knowledge or talent differences.
One of the most important elements and prerequisites of the successful functioning of the international higher education is the effective and suitable legal background. Hungary as a member state of the European Higher Education Area and of the European Union have several benefits from its memberships because this institutional and legal background will make the diplomas issued by Hungarian universities accepted in several countries. The international comparability of the knowledge incorporated by the Hungarian diplomas can be granted by the harmonisation of the different acts and the legal systems of the member states. The Hungarian results on this field are impressive.
Based on these information we can analyse the importance of the international higher education in case of the labour market. One of the leading occupation tendencies in the 21st century is the internationalisation of the labour market. The companies are trying to employ the best workforce available on the labour market and the lack of suitable workforce pushes them to find the suitable employees abroad – or on the domestic universities and they have much more possibilities if international students are also studying there.
Korunk jogalkotási metódusai folyamatosan gyorsulnak, a szabályozás ágai egyre szerteágazóbbak. Az állandóan változó (globalizálódó) élethelyzeteink megkövetelik, hogy a jogi szabályozás is lépést tartson, mind időben, mind pedig minőségben megfelelő választ a...djon. A megfelelő, vagy ha úgy tetszik minőségi válaszok nyilvánvalóan a jogalkotáson keresztül érkeznek, és annak végtermékeiben, a jogszabályokban öltenek testet. A kérdés már csak az, hogy milyenek is ezek a minőségi "termékek", illetve az, hogy milyen szerep jut a modern (digitális) technológiá(k)nak a jogalkotási folyamatokban.
Jelen munka igyekszik röviden bemutatni, hogy a magyar jogtudomány álláspontja szerint mi is számít minőségi jogalkotásnak továbbá, röviden vázolja a technológiai eredményeinek az előbb említett folyamatoknak betöltött szerepét, annak összefüggéseit a különböző jogalkotási folyamatokban itthon és külföldön.
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation), bec...ame effective on 25 May 2018. With the regulatory form the legislator raised the regulation of the right to the protection of personal data within the European Union to a higher level. The legislative act has a fundamental impact on the legal systems of the member states showing various differences from each other. Further, it can be stated as a general experience that the right to the protection of personal data and the nature of such right are less known either to those affected or to the data controllers. The new legislative act and the penalties with increased amounts [Article 84 of the GDPR] demand the elaboration of a study understandable for laics, too. Finally, as a result of the General Data Protection Regulation, the institution system ensuring the protection of personal data has fundamentally changed, so, therefore, it is also necessary to examine the authorities of the member states and the Union, as well.
The study primarily approaches the occurring problems from the practice side. Accordingly, the examination conducted by the Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés (CNIL) against Google is described, as the first significant penalty imposed based on the General Data Protection Regulation.
The first part of the study is intended to present the right to the general protection of personal data. The historical part addresses in details the major elements of the historical development of data protection and the development of its contents, with particular regard to the appearance of the right to information self-determination based on the so-called “census-judgement” of 1983 of the BVerfG (Federal Constitutional Court of Germany). Finally, this part touches upon the theories defined in connection with the historical generations of the right to the protection of personal data. After the historical part the study addresses the peculiarities of the right to the protection of personal data, paying particular attention to separation from the neighbouring legal areas.
The second part is intended to present the prevalence of the right to information self-determination according to the GDPR. It is the institution system protecting personal data that has undergone the most significant change. The Work Group under Article 29 has been replaced by the Data Protection Agency set up based on the GDPR. Setting up the Agency, enlarging its scope of authority and its stronger independence from the executive powers of the Union can, by all means, be evaluated positively. As regards the security of personal data, the practice, major directives and opinions of the Work Group under Article 29 have been examined. It is a significant step forward that the GDPR has made the sphere of special personal data more specific, promoting by this the increase of the extent of protection. It is important that, as a general rule, the Regulation forbids controlling special personal data. The definition of the concept of personal data is an essential condition for understanding the regulation. In addition to the principles of controlling personal data, the legal fundaments of data control have particular significance, with special regard to the consent and the data control necessary for performing the contract. In my view, the consent is a legal fundament of auxiliary nature for data control, which is also supported by the opinions of the Work Group, too. Granting the consent and the individual excluding circumstances occurring in connection with this, were examined on a case-by-case basis. In my opinion, the automated decision making process and the regulation of profile creation are one of the most cardinal issues of the GDPR. The way in which profiles are created, their use and the permissibility of such use are discussed in details. In my view, the regulation of the GDPR is deficient as regards the automated decision making process and the profile creation. The decision making necessary for performing the contract is not separated sharply enough, and it is not necessary for this. In my opinion, in respect of this latter sphere of cases the GDPR is not strict enough and may easily serve as a basis for misuse on the part of data controllers. In my view, granting the consent should be made stricter in respect of creating profiles and the introduction of the (contradictable) legal presumption of refusal would also be desirous.