57. évf. , 3-4. szám (2018): A kulturális emlékezet mintázatai

Megjelent december 30, 2018

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Tanulmányok

Szerkesztői előszó
3–4.

Miközben az elmúlt két-három évtizedben nem jelentkezett radikálisan új, szemléletformáló elméleti irányzat az irodalomtudományban, addig több kutatási-értelmezési irány nagyon mély gyökeret vert, s állandóan felbukkan a történeti és interpretációs munkákban. Az egyéni és kulturális trauma kontextusait mozgósít... megközelítések, valamint a média- és kultúratudományos vizsgálódások mellett az emlékezetkutatások is alapjaiban hatják át a legszélesebb humán- és társadalomtudományi vizsgálódásokat, s ezekben a kiterjedt interdiszciplináris törekvésekben az irodalomtudomány is komoly szerepet vállal.
A memory boom jelenségének (és a jelenség túlburjánzásának, s így szükségszerű inflálódásának) talán legmeghatározóbb éltetőjeként a több évszázadon keresztül töretlen hagyományátörökítésnek, a közösségi emlékezet felszólító jellegének az elhalványulását nevezhetjük meg. Az elmúlt évtizedek felfokozott emlékezetét nagyban motiválta egyfelől a társadalmi nyilvánosság kiszélesedése, az információhordozó médiumok elszaporodása, melynek köszönhetően minden aktuális történést látunk, érzékelünk, értelemezünk (s ugyanígy számos médiumon keresztül jutunk el a múlt legkülönfélébb regisztereihez is), ám a szinte feldolgozhatatlan mennyiségű, nézőpontú, széttartó informácóáramlás relativizálja (s egyben manipulálhatóvá is teszi) minden kép, látvány, szó, tény súlyát, használati értékét; másfelől pedig napjaink társadalmiságának multikulturális közege a közös emlékezést leginkább mozgósító nemzeti közösség határait is erodálja, a nemzeti-közösségi identitás elhalványulását is magával hozva. A lényeg, hogy napjainkban talán mindennél inkább szükség van olyan fogódzókra, eligazodási pontokra, kapaszkodókra, melyet javarészt a fókuszált egyéni-közösségi emlékezeti munka biztosít.

Teljes absztrakt mutatása
13
4
Szakrális tér és emlékezet az ókeresztény martürionokban: (Nyssai Szent Gergely 25. levele és Homíliája Szent Theodóros ünnepén)
5–22.

In the present study, through analyzing two pieces of writing (Epistula 25 and In Theodorum) by the 4th-century Cappadocian father, St. Gregory of Nyssa (A.D. 334/35–395), I intend to focus on the relationship between sacral places or spaces and memory in the Early Christian cult of martyrs, more specifically, in the case of martyria. Althoug...h these pieces are not related to one another, both can be considered paradigmatic from the aspect of the current topic. What is more, their joint reading and analysis would be expressly desirable because the epistle provides the external layout of the construction of a martyrion that, as far as we know, has never been completed, while the homily contains a description of the interior of another martyrion, which still existed during the lifetime of St. Gregory of Nyssa, elaborating in detail also on how the memory and laudation of the martyr saint were related to the sacred location and space. Following the clarification of the concept of martyria and providing a brief outline of the religious-theoretical and architectural contexts, through a joint interpretation of the two pieces of writing, I will attempt to address the issue of what kind of religious and symbolic associations helped communal memory in the sacred space determined by religious and liturgical functions to cherish the cult of martyrs and thus strengthen the faith of the community.

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21
18
„Nagy idő múlt a nagy harc óta!”: A kőszívű ember fiai emlékezeti munkája
23–68.

Mór Jókai’s novel, A kőszívű ember fiai (The Baron’s Sons), published in 1869, has become one of the cornerstones of national memory regarding the 1848-49 Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence in the 20th century, and in the past century in academic writing it has been interwoven with the notions of mythical novel and new nation...al origin story. However, the result of the closer rereading of the novel led to the conclusion that The Baron’s Sons may not have become one of the outstanding bearers of the 48-49 memory because of its layered representation of the past and its memory work that easily leaps through time, but the lengthy embedding work of the Hungarian collective memory might have been needed (as well). The Baron’s Sons can be best described by its genre-poetical forms, it was fundamentally a popular novel, deeply rooted in the present of its time of creation, it satisfied the contemporary reader in many ways (adventure fiction, fitted for serialization etc.). While it considers the heroic and tragic fights of the (near) past, it offers points for orientation to  understand its age, and it uses appropriate acting strategies fit for outlining the values of the reshaping society. To describe these notions Biedermeier’s conceptual net offers some grasping points: the staging of the moving on after the end of the mourning, the deheroisation and the placing of the events in the distancing memory all serve the revelation of safety, homeliness, and conservation in the novel.

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19
147
A Rákóczi-szabadságharc emlékezete Jókai Mór műveiben
69–83.

One of the most interesting times of the memory of Rákóczi’s War of Independence was the second half of the 19th century. The period studied begins in 1848, when the close connections between the two War of Independences (Rákóczi’s and ’48/49) determines the way of recalls and as ’48/49 itself became the part of the cultural memory,... the memory of the Rákóczi Era changed as well. The paper intends to explore some of the main features of this memories through the study of works and associated organs by Mór Jókai. The paper first examines the Rákóczi related poems from the organ called Életképek, published in 1848 by Sándor Petőfi, János Arany and Kálmán Lisznyai, then one of Jókai’s poem, published in 1883. Two of Jókai’s novels, the A lőcsei fehér asszony and the Szeretve mind a vérpadig also compared by their memory operations of the poems before.

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10
50
„Néger atyafiak”: Emlékezettörténeti epizód a millenniumi ünnepségekről
84–97.

In the Hungarian cultural memory the festival of the Hungarian Millennium in Budapest was an occasion to celebrate the social and the industrial development of the country which became the coequal partner of Austria after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The festival was similar to a World’s Fair of the era, with many popular spectacl...es in the City Park of the capital. In my paper I describe a forgotten episode of the festival, notably the exhibit of an African tribe in the zoo of Budapest. By the analysis of the report of the weekly Vasárnapi Ujság (Sunday News) it is possible to demonstrate that the millennial narrative of the modernity and the successful nation is based on a colonial discourse.

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49
54
Theodor Körner, az NDK politikai mítosza: A német nacionalizmus hagyománya az NDK irodalmában
98–110.

The biographic novels about Theodor Körner accurately demonstrate the significant paradigm shifts in East Germany’s memory politics. Before 1949, the nationalistic tradition was rejected even in the area under Soviet occupation, nevertheless it became a central element of East Germany’s ideology after the turn of 1952. One must add, that i...t was not picked up in its original form, but adapted to the requirements of the present. The Körner novels reveal the main characteristics of this transformed nationalism. The political changes of the seventies generated a turn of cultural policy as well. The particularities of this new paradigm are reflected in Ulrich Völkel’s novel about Theodor Körner. The recycled myth of Körner paints a picture of East Germany which we came to know during the last decade of its existence.

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6
3
A Chamisso-díj után, a Chamisso-irodalmon túl: Kortárs német nyelvű irodalom és emlékezetkultúra a migráció kontextusában
111–134.

The Adelbert von Chamisso Prize was (up to 2017) awarded by the Robert Bosch Stiftung to honour German-language authors whose works are shaped by a change of culture and an unusual way of using the language. The present article explores the development of the “Chamisso literature” (into which “migrant literature” evolved), its place in ...literary history and the recent trends it reflects. It also intends to provide an overview of theoretical approaches to the connection between literature, migration and German memory cultures, with special emphasis on the so called “eastern turn” in German literature.

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5
8
„Nem börtön, hanem (…) menedék”: Módszertani kérdésfelvetések és közelítések az 1950-es, 1960-as években egyházi gimnáziumokban végzett öregdiákok visszaemlékezéseihez
135–151.

In my paper I investigate the general memory, identity and spatial theoretical aspects of the written and post-regime-published reminiscences of alumni graduated from the High School of the Reformed Church in Debrecen (Debreceni Református Kollégium Gimnáziuma) and from the Benedictine Secondary School of Pannonhalma (Pannonhalmi Bencés Gim...názium) in the 1950’s and the 1960’s. Considering the theoretical and methodological approaches of oral history I examined the potential factors which can determine the reminiscences, then I analysed the schools as narrative constructions and their role in the community’s identity. The narrative of those whose families have been declassed can be considered dominant in the discussed texts and volumes: these alumni characterize their former secondary school as a ’shelter’ or an ’island’ which embraced them and which was able to defend them against the offence and oppression of the Socialist-Communist regime. Nevertheless, boarding schools – as crisis heterotopias (Michel Foucault) – can easily be interpreted as the institutions of discipline, seclusion and punishment, similarly to prisons.

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18
21
„Szent marginalitás”: Egy csereháti Mária-jelenés lokális emlékezetének vizsgálata
152–172.

The subject of my paper, the documentary titled The Treasures of Attila reveals an event, during which a bell-ringer of a small village of Cserehát rebuilds a tiny wooden chapel in the heart of the woods, on the spot of an earlier Virgin Mary apparition that once had been a debated issue, but has been long forgotten since. Attila’s private v...enture ends up in a communal pilgrimage to the chapel and the consecration of the building. The paper reveals Attila’s identity strategy which guides him to set up this place of memory and religious worship. In the gesture of the chapel’s erection he defines himself as the guard of the forgotten memory and the protector of values that have been wasted by others. The paper also describes the communicative memory of the former miracle-event as overburdened by conflicts, because of the exclusion and legitimation struggle to which the apparition narrative is subject. This struggle is attached to several authorities (state, church) and local social groups. In relation to the erection of the chapel as a memorial, the fragmentary image of communicative memory has been succeeded by a more settled remembrance typical of cultural memory.

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11
24
Kultusz, pletyka, emlékezet: A kultúra közvetítésének aspektusai Nyáry Krisztián íróportréiban
173–181.

The paper analyzes Krisztián Nyáry’s popular Facebook posts and volumes (This is the way they loved, Part One; Part Two) depicting the love life of Hungarian writers and poets. I explore how the short texts dealing with the love adventures of authors are defined by memory, which, in turn, is formed by cultic interpretation (with special foc...us on the Facebook posts). On the other hand, the popularity of posts is interpreted by describing the function of gossip and by Jan Asssman’s theory of communicative and cultural memory. The two formats of publishing the texts is compared, though only tangentially, with the aim of discovering the way the reception of texts change in relation to the different medial contexts.

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15
8
A hálózatok emlékezetei, az emlékezetek hálózatai
182–195.

The present paper aims to tentatively raise a number of issues regarding the complex relationship between collective memory and the internet, more specifically Web 2.0. First, I briefly demonstrate how the metaphors of the internet and of collective memory have shaped our understanding of the two topics, and I look at the possible interfaces be...tween them. Then, capitalizing upon the metaphor of network, the most prevalent one of such ‘interfaces’, the paper seeks to explore the insights it can offer in relation with collective memories in the age of social media. Finally, I use the example of the late Kádár-era and its online memory to illuminate a few theoretical consequences of imagining contemporary online memory communities as networks.

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A történelem politikai felhasználásáról
196–207.

Within memory culture the relationship between politics and history has always been full of tension which is usually distinguished with the concept of history politics. The concept has become a standard point of orientation nearly everywhere, which, on its own, does not have outstanding political importance, however, as a dominant element it de...termines what we accept and reject from the past, thus history can never be completely politically neutral. In present political decisions we can always find direct or indirect references to or motivations for the past, which defy our political engagement and necessities. Therefore, in general, history politics explains the interaction through which past events gain meaning and significance in politics. History politics is the discursive space in which the interpretation of history is based upon the primer political usage of the present public representation of a communally relevant past event by different agents. Hence, it is not a coherent subject but a way of approaching or a perspective of questioning, which wishes to grasp the interactions between history and politics on a public and academic level.

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