Aktuális szám

58. évf. , 3–4. szám (2019): Műelemzések

Megjelent december 30, 2019



Szerkesztői előszó

Az irodalmi szövegek olvasása, kommentálása és értelmezése évezredes gyökerekhez vezethető vissza, még ha közismert, hogy széles körben elterjedt gyakorlattá, kritikai és tudományos praxissá elsősorban a modernitás korától vált a szöveginterpretáció, amikor is az irodalom levált az írott szövegek összeségéről, ...nállósodott, s fokozatosan kialakultak és meggyökeresedtek az irodalom tudományos használatához kapcsolódó intézmények. A középiskolai és az egyetemi irodalomtanításban is kiemelt szerephez jut mind a mai napig az értelmező tevékenység: az interpretáció gyakorlata összhangba hozható a befogadás élményszerű aspektusaival, s az irodalmi szövegek minél komplexebb és intenzívebb megszólaltatása rengeteg olyan beszélgetés kezdeményezésére teremthet lehetőséget, amely az ön- és világmegértésnek, a kreativitás fejlesztésének, az érzelmi intelligencia kibontakozásának egyaránt médiuma lehet.

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Zártság és teljesség: (Longosz: Daphnisz és Khloé)

Longus’s influential novel, Daphnis and Chloe, is barely present in Hungarian literary education. This paper sets out to provide a methodological example for the understanding of the novel by applying some basic poetic-narratological aspects and by doing this the distance between ancient culture and today’s reader can be reduced. The interp...retation of the novel starts with the most important questions expressed in the prologue (prooimium): the unanimity and difference between the real and the fictional author/narrator; the role of intertextuality; the interconnection of word and image, the novel as ekphrasis; the understanding of the relation between nature (physis) and human creation (technē). Then it continues to explore the characters of the two protagonists, Daphnis and Chloe, the gods who have a role in their love and experiences (Eros, Pan, and Dionysus), the threatening external forces, and the most crucial questions of space, time and bucolic idyll. All these are subordinated to the most significant interpretational possibilities (the novel as the allegory of Love), which provides the opportunity to show the author’s, Longus’s, ironic perspective.

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Árva Bethlen Kata önreprezentációi: (Érvek az önéletírás filológiai szempontú, kontextualizáló olvasása mellett)

The Transylvanian Countess, Kata Bethlen’s (1700-1759) autobiography was published in her lifetime, whereas the majority of autobiographies in the 17-18th centuries, especially if it was written by a woman, were circulated as manuscripts, and only very few of these were made public in their age, not just in Hungary but in Europe as well. Alth...ough Bethlen’s book was only published in small numbers but together with her also published prayer book they were enough to make her well-known among women with similar social standing from the second half of 18th century. Several scholars in the 20th century and the wider reading public appreciated autobiographies for their self-investigative and novel-like characteristics. This paper written from a philological perspective argues that by examining the context of early modern autobiographies the interpretation of these can be more accurate. On the one hand, I explore the meaning of Bethlen’s text being on the borderline of manuscripts and published register. On the other hand, I emphasise that in the early modern era we cannot talk about “writers” in the modern sense of the word, especially in the cases of female authors, because secretaries, scribes and court clergymen helped them prepare, circulate, and publish their texts. (This was also true of Kata Bethlen’s work, her text was emended, edited, proof-read, and published by her former court priest and one of the most important Calvinist scholars in 18th century Transylvania: Peter Bod.) Research calls this “collaborative co-authorship”. Finally, the paper offers an interpretative possibility, which introduces Bethlen’s autobiography as a coherent selfrepresentation of widowhood. According to this the forsaken woman’s individual helplessness and suffering can be allegorically understood as the trials of the whole persecuted community, namely the 18th century Transylvanian reformed church.

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„Édes melankólia”: A Fanni hagyományai emberképéről

Kármán József ’s Fanni hagyományai (Fanni’s Heritage) is one of the first Hungarian novels at the end of the 18th century which was edited in the periodical Uránia in three parts, composed by journal notes and letters. The novel was rediscovered at the end of the 20th century: the interpretations were concentrating on the modernity of ...the heroine, on the diversity of the various meanings. Two decades later two papers pointed out the alterity of the text by its typical 18th century topics like sensibility, nature or God-concept. Inspired by these aspects I was trying to describe how the approach of the humoralism and the descriptions of the nature are present in the self-reflection of the heroine, which is overall a modern reinterpretation of many cultural traditions.

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A Tövisek és virágok kötetkompozíciója és szöveghálója

Ferenc Kazinczy’s epigram volume titled Tövisek és virágok (Thorns and Flowers) was canonised as the opening event of the debates surrounding the language reform. This paper attempts to discover the original context of the volume by analysing the cycle composition and the comments and textuality surrounding the poems. First, it reviews the... circumstances of the birth and publication of the volume, it discovers the defining factors in the canonisation. Then it reviews the compositional principles of the poem cycle, then the understanding of the reference system and the textual connections of the epigrams follows. The volume (1811) is rooted in the debates of the previous decades, based upon these Pöbel, as the main opponent can be identified with that Calvinist cultural background that Kazinczy mostly criticised and which is named as Debreczen.

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Az ősz, az ősz: A közelítő tél mint beszédesemény és mint szövegváltozat: (egy módszertani olvasat, következményekkel)

This paper, after introducing a group-based method of a university poetry-analysis, presents a noteworthy seminar-interpretation of Daniel Berzsenyi’s poem with the title ’A közelítő tél’ (“As Winter Approaches”). The point is that the work is not read as a poem of death, but as a poem of aging, and the first version of the histor...y of its morphosis (with the title ‘Az ősz’, “The Autumn”) is highlighted, in contrast to the final transcript, which is actually known only. It is obvious from the naturally non-exclusive interpretation that the poem – and Berzsenyi’s entire poetry – has much more to do with the popularity of community poetry than we usually think, and the stakes of that poem, in the light of our reading, are quite different from what we have learned and thought so far. All of this also has a significant message for contemporary literary education.

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Verstípus és stílustörténet: a magyar tájlíra három változata: (Keszthely, Az alföld, Nádas tavon)

Topographical poetry is the characteristic lyrical text group of 19th century Hungarian literature; its history illustrates the impact of the contemporary style and norms defining the creation and reception of literary works and its changes on the formation of certain types of poems. In the background of the poem titled “Keszthely” and writ...ten by Dániel Berzsenyi between 1799 and 1803 we can discover the classicistic natural theory, supported by Descartes’s anthropological dualism, in which the distinction between Nature and Culture is essential; this gives the basis in the poem to identify the picturesque and agriculturally rich area around Lake Balaton with Helicon, the home of the Muses. Sándor Petőfi’s poem, “Az alföld” (“The Great Plain”) (1844) follows the unity theory of romantic anthropology and it uses the expansionist human model of romanticism. The poem presupposes the innate relationship of landscape and Self: the narrator loves his native land, the Great Plain with endless possibilities, because he received his fundamental characteristic from it, the desire for freedom. The poem “Nádas Tavon” (“On a Lake with Reed”) (1888) by János Vajda preserves the romantic relationship between the landscape and the Self but it renounces the interpretation of this relationship and by that it realises the limitations of poetic language.

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A vigasz három variánsa: Babits három „önmegszólító” verse

My paper is basically methodological, I use comparative poem analysis strategies to read Mihály Babits’s three poems: “Zsoltár férfihangra” (“Psalm for Male Voice”), “Tremolo” (“Tremolo”), and “Csak posta voltál” (“You Were Just a Letter”). The ostensible clearly the narrator himself, thus all three poems can be un...derstood as lyric addresses. On the other hand, the approaches of the three poems are completely different: the “Psalm for Male Voice’s” is cosmological-anthropological, the “Tremolo’s” is psychological, and the “You Were Just a Letter’s” is personality theoretical-anthropological-ontological. The poems could be interpreted successfully by secondary students as well, since the lyric address poem trio is thematically close to the teenagers experiencing identity crisis: two of the poems (“Psalm for Male Voice” and “Tremolo”) offer opportunities for self-asserting and comfort, the third one (“You Were Just a Letter”) stages the process of self-investigation and it explores the great question of teen age: “Who am I?”.

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Nevelődés, beavatás, mese: Tamási Áron Ábel a rengetegben című regényének műfaji elemzése

This paper attempts to reinterpret Áron Tamási’s most significant novel, Ábel a rengetegben (Abel in the Forest). The interpretation approaches the text from genre reading, according to which the analysis understands the text’s exemplary meanings based upon the genres of Bildungsroman, tale and initiation story. The paper sets out to dem...onstrate that the text’s poetic achievement can be best understood as the polyphony of meanings in themes, motifs as well as in linguistics–rhetoric, regardless its understanding as wish fulfilment in tales, or as successful educational process filled with tests, or as the parable of minority fate.

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Leleplezett prosopopeia, megrekedt szinekdoché: Műfajpoétikai kérdések Dragomán György A fehér király című művében

György Dragomán’s second novel, The White King, while being extremely popular with literary audiences, also gained considerable critical acclaim. The story of Djata, the young boy who has to grow up without his father in an unnamed Eastern European dictatorship has been translated to thirty languages due to its powerful images and complex, ...yet easily readable language, which works well with adolescents as well. Using close reading, the present paper focuses on the genre related dilemmas of the novel. The paper uses Paul de Man’s understanding of prosopopeia and the concept of dysfunctional synecdoche to argue that the genres of “father novel”, bildungsroman and dystopia are each other’s logical consequences and as such are intermingled in The White King.

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Nyelviség, szociologikum és kulturális tradíció Tar Sándor Szilvia című novellájában

The study approaches the short story of Sándor Tar, “Szilvia” with two specific aims. The first is scientific, to identify the linguistic components of the short story and to interpret its language and narration. The analysis is also about how the short story reflects on the literary tradition, especially the tradition of the initiation-st...ories and the short stories of Ferenc Móra from the beginning of the 20th century. The second aim is educational: to show how a certain literary analysis can be applied in schools.

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Kortárs novella az irodalomórán: Tóth Krisztina Pixel című kötetének értelmezési lehetőségei

In secondary school literary education contemporary Hungarian literature directly appears at the end of 12th grade. Pixel by Krisztina Tóth can be an exceptionally interesting reading for students with its thematic emphases like social taboos and the proposal of the stereotypes of city life. This paper sets out to introduce the interpretationa...l possibilities that were the outcome of the teaching process. Besides the interpretation of the volume composition based upon contemporary reception, I also propose methodological objectives that, if applied to certain texts, can help teacher trainees use the perspective system of narratopoetics in a reflected way. This paper wishes to explore short story series as interpretational possibility, as well as the understanding of certain excerpts taken out of the text based upon narrative position and logic, metaphoric storytelling, and the plot constructing dynamics of certain motifs.

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Egy novella komplex megközelítése: szoros olvasás és kontextusteremtő értelmezés: (William H. Gass: Rovarok rendje)

This article offers an interpretation of the short story “Order of Insects” by the American writer William H. Gass. The interpretation is intended as a methodological demonstration of short story analysis, as it shows a way to develop a close textual analysis from a few guiding questions. The opening question is simultaneously generic and t...hematic, as readers are encouraged to trace the mental transformation of the narrator-protagonist throughout the text. The central ontological theme of the story is identified in the contrast between a mechanical, insect-like existence and an artistic, intellectually inclined mentality. Images and motifs deepening and complicating this dichotomy are explicated. These include the significance of different sensual impressions (hearing/noises vs. sight/vision) and various implications of the term order. In the conclusion, possible critical-theoretical contexts for interpretation are outlined: a potential feminist and a potential posthumanist reading are contrasted to an interpretation grounded in the author’s own view of literature as “ontologically transformed” language.

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Az irodalmi szövegértelmezés határos határtalanságáról

The interpretation of literary texts still hold a pivotal role in the practice of university and secondary literary education, thus in the case of text analysis in educational situation one of the most important responsibilities of the teacher is to improve the interpretative skills of students. My paper undertakes two important tasks in this c...ontext. Based upon my experiences with my text analysis seminar course for first-year university students I examine, on the one hand, the fixed patterns with which the amateur interpreter tries to overcome the difficulties of interpretation, which tend to hinder rather than support the dialogue about the text. On the other hand, because it is impossible to create an interpretational formula for all literary works, my most important aim is to introduce how a possible model of interpretation is produced in the process, which can serve as a means for amateur interpreters to overcome the more difficult parts of a dialogue. In both cases I use Zoltán Ambrus’s short story titled “Ninive pusztulása” (“The Demise of Nineveh”) (1892) and its student interpretations from
the past decade.

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