Search

The examination of the agronomy, the amount of yield, and the yield stability of winter wheat varieties
61-72

Our research was carried out at University of Debrecen Centre for Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Institution of Plant Sciences Látókép Research Institute through the breeding year of 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 using cherrnozem soil. In our research we tested 14 chosen autumn wheat varieties during the three crop years.
The different varieties showed very dissimilar ability of resistance against diseases through the three crop years. We could observe both susceptible and resistant varieties. Susceptible varieties got diseases even in favourable crop years. The observed winter wheat varieties showed higher susceptibility against helminthosporium (21.8%) and leaf rost (16.4%). Among the 14 varieties we experienced the least susceptibility in the case of ‘Gaspard’ and ‘GK Kalász’. The research showed that the disease of fusarium undoubtedly depends on the features of the crop year.
In terms of stem solidity we experienced big differences. Among all the observed winter wheat varieties the mid-late ripening ‘Gaspard’ showed the best results in the average of the three years, only 5.3% was beaten down.
The three ripening group of the winter wheat showed the following average yield in the average of three years: 7065 kg/hectare (early ripening varieties), 7261 kg/hectare (late ripening varieties), 6793 kg/hectare (mid-late ripening varieties). Among all the observed varieties the early ripening ‘Flori 2’ produced the biggest yield (7692 kg/hectare).
During the three crop years we reached very different amounts of yield which means that weather conditions had a telling affect on yield. In 2004 we reached an excellent average yield in all the tree  breeding groups because of the favourable weather conditions. In 2005 we had a moderate amount of yield because of the unfavourable weather conditions of winter. The year of 2006 showed the smallest amount of yield which is due to the fact that the plant grew less thick than usually.
There were significant differences among the observed varieties in the term of yield, which can be attributed to dissimilar biological basics.
One of he most important questions is the yield stability of the varieties. We had extremely different results at this field. Speaking in general terms we can state that both weather conditions and genetical abilities have a determining effect on yield. In the case of winter wheat varieties the rate of yield fluctuation was quite big, moving in the interval of 33.7-70.3%. Among all the observed varieties ‘Gaspard’ showed the best yield stability (33.3%). 

62
114
Examination of the Effect of Cropyear on the Yield Potential and Yield Stability of Winter Wheat Varieties
62-67

Variety selection is one of the most important, determinative elements of sustainable winter wheat production. Yield potential, and yield stability are the most important elements in the variety selection of winter wheat, but baking quality parameters play an important role, too.
Several winter wheat varieties were tested for yield and yield stability on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (in the eastern part of Hungary), in the 2001-2002-2003-2004 cropyears. The management factors were the same for all cropyears. 15 varieties in early the maturity group, 14 varieties in the middle maturity group and 4 varieties in the late maturity group were tested in the above mentioned cropyears. The climatic conditions were average in 2001, dry in 2002, extremely dry in 2003, and very favourable in 2004.
We obtained 5298-6183 kgha-1 yield from early maturity varieties, 5683-6495 kgha-1 from middle, 5694-6031 kgha-1 from late ones in the average of four years. The cropyears had strong influence on the yields, even on chernozem soil, and were characterized by excellent water – and nutrient – husbandry. Averaging of cropyears and genotypes, we obtained 6984 kgha-1 in 2001 (average cropyear), 5452 kgha-1 in 2002 (dry cropyear), 3120 kgha-1 in 2003 (extremely dry cropyear) and 8400 kgha-1 in 2004 (optimum cropyear), respectively. The yield differences between the minimum and maximum yields were 885 kgha-1 in early varieties, 812 kgha-1 in middle and 337 kgha-1 in late maturity varieties, respectively. The varieties characterized by high yield potential and the varieties characterized by good yield stability were different, so in variety selection we have to take both genetic traits into consideration. There were positive, significant correlations among the yields of winter wheat varieties (early, middle, late), the temperature of spring months. (March-April), and the rainfall of spring months (March-April) (R2=0,703**-0,768** and R2=0,681**-0,749**, respectively). We found a high negative correlation between the temperature of early summer months (May-June) and the yields of wheat varieties (R2= -0,856**- -0,918**).
According to the results of our experiment, it is very important to harmonize yield potential and yield stability in the variety selection of winter wheat.

72
132
Changes in the Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in a Comparative Experiment
179-183

The hungarian seed grain supply offers more and more varieties from the field crops for public cultivation in every year. The number of the admitted varieties by state doubled from 1996 to 2001. The question is what changes can the varieties newly inproved show in the quality parameters.
32 varieties admitted in different years was examined on quality parameters as wet gluten content, valorigraphic value and falling number from period 1996-2001. We established that the newer varieties surpassed the traditional varieties of the variety-comparativing experiment in accordion to they wet gluten content. In connection with formation of valorigraphical value we saw that the new varieties got place in the varieties admitted for public cultivation in quality based examining. The varieties showed different reaction of fertilizer on the formation of these two parameters. In connection with the formation of the value of falling number the examined varieties suited for the requirements of quality crop production in the experimental years excepted some of them.

53
111
Test Results of Winter Wheat Varieties in 2002/2003 in the Hajdusag
59-64

We examined 35 early, 32 mid-season and 12 mid-late winter wheat varieties on calciferous chernozem soil after sunflower green crop in 2003. We set-up the experiment on small-size parcels, with 4 repetitions. In addition to the favourable agrotechnical conditions, with this year’s extreme ecological conditions the varieties resulted in weaker yields (2500-3200 kg/ha). Our findings have proven that there is a significant difference both between the maturity groups and between the yield potential of varieties with different genotypes, inside each group. Early varieties showed lower yield potentials according to the other two groups. The differences between the various variety’s yields was the smallest in the mid late group (893 kg/ha). Under given ecological and agrotechnical conditions, the following varieties showed the relatively best yields and best adaptability:
• early maturing varieties (3200-3700 kg/ha): Mv palotás, KG Magor, Mv Mambo, Mv Emese, GK Margit, GK Tündér, GK Csongrád, GK Attila, Mv Amanda, Ukrainka;
• mid season varieties (3300-3800 kg/ha): Győző, GK Marcal, Róna, GK Rába, Buzogány, MF Kazal, GK Mura, Hunor, GK Cipó, Mv Magvas, Mv Vilma, GK Zugoly, Jubilejnaja 50;
• mid-late varieties (3200-3600 kg/ha): Maximus, Complet, KG Kunhalom, GK Holló.

70
155
Examination of the vegetative and generative accomplishment of new apple varieties
29-34

Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in their origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.

105
181
The examination of flesh firmness in different apple varieties
103-107

Of the different physical features of fruits, one important quality feature is flesh hardness. This is an important parameter to be considered when selling fresh apples, for the manufacturing industry and when entering into storage. In our research, we examined 7 apple varieties, in 2016 and 2017, from the establishment of KITE Zrt. in Derecske and the Horticultural Experimentation Site of Pallag (Pallagi Kertészeti Kísérleti Telep). The plantations took place in accordance with intensive apple production. In both years, samples were collected at the time ripening of the given apple variety. Of the examined apple varieties, 5 of them are resistant to scab (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda, Fujion), 1 is not resistant (Golden Reinders) and 1 (Pinova) is moderately susceptible to scab. The scab resistant apple varieties were correlated to the non-resistant Golden Reinders. Flesh firmness was measured with a fruit penetrometer in each of the seven apple varieties. In the first year a two-month storage experiment was carried out, where the flash firmness after harvest, and after one-month and two-month storage was measured. The results were assessed with the help of the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 program. The goal is to compare the apple varieties based on their flesh firmness, in particular with regard to the resistant varieties.

The Isaaq 8.81–8.82 N/cm2 , the Modí 9.18–9.59 N/cm2 and the Fujion 8.66–9.13 N/cm2 , all of which are scab resistant apple varieties, showed a significant initial flesh firmness. During storage, the Pinova apple variety flesh firmness changed the most favourably.

117
150
Variations in major quality parameters of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in storage
249-254

We analysed five parameters (moisture-, protein content, Hagberg’s falling number, wet gluten content and alveographic W (10-4 J) values) and the microbiological changes of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) during storage, to determine the tendency, type and volume of the of the change of this five qualitative parameters during storage.
We found that the examined winter wheat varieties retained their moisture, protein content and their Hagberg’s falling number, they did not change during storage.
A slight growth could be experienced in the values of wet gluten content for all the four winter wheat varieties in terms of the duration of storage (129 days). This result proved the theory of after-ripening, when gluten percentage improves qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The value of the quantitative growth was about 10% for all the four winter wheat varieties.
We placed a special emphasis on measuring the alveographic W (10-4 J) values during storage. All the four winter wheat varieties showed decreasing values of about 20-40%.
Microbiological examinations on the four winter wheat varieties showed that mould, mould flora and total germ count remained balanced with some slight variations and they did not change in terms of time under optimal storage conditions.

71
82
Presentation of winter flower-dub lesions of peach varieties originating from different growing areas
70-73

Although there are many critical points in peach production, in Hungary, winter frost damage is one of the most significant. Serious winter frost damage on the Hungarian Great Plain was the focus of our experiments. The adequate growth and the most adaptable varieties are determining factors in peach production. In our experiments, we compared three growing areas (Siófok, Sóskút, Szatymaz) and four different varieties (Suncrest, Redhaven, Meystar, Michellini). Throughout these growing areas and with varieties, we wanted to demonstrate the differences in the frost damage values of the flower buds in 2005 and 2006.
In the course of the statistical trials, we found that the difference between the varieties is significant (table 2). The most tolerant variety as for frost tolerance is the ‘Michellini’ variety, and the worst is the ‘Suncrest’ variety. We also found that these data are significant. When we examined the varieties according to their growth, we got the same results (table 3). We determined that the differences between growth are significant and related to these four varieties and the two years (2005-2006), that frost damage was the highest at Szatymaz, and that it was the lowest in Sóskút.

43
89
Comparison of growth parameters of 40 varieties/clones short rotation coppice willow (Salix)
99-104

The plantation of willow varieties was established in 2009. The 40 different varieties and clones of Salix were planted at a research field in Kolíňany (Nitra district). The paper evaluates results from the first growing season in 2009. The survival rate of planted cuttings ranged from 55.56 % to 100.00 % after the first year. The lowest survival rate was reached by Terra Nova variety. The stem numbers per plant ranged from 1.17 ±0.37 to 2.53 ±0.98. The average height of one-year old stem varied from 65.82 ±36.60 cm to 225.58 ±68.61 cm. The average stem diameter ranged from 6.90 ±2.63 mm to 14.34 ±3.39 mm. There were statistically very significant differences in parameters of stem height stem diameter and stem numbers per plant among studied varieties/clones. The statistic method used was analysis of variance ANOVA. The varieties were then divided into 6 groups according to their similarity in observed parameters after the first growing season by cluster analysis. The best results were reached by varieties/clones classified in the second group. The survival rate, stem diameter and stem height values of these varieties/clones were above average. 

98
144
Examination of French bean on organic and conventional farming of Research Centre of Nyíregyháza
87-98

This study presents the yield results of some French bean varieties in organic and conventional farming. This study presents the advantage of organic farming in environmental point of view and in nutrition. Sale of organic products is insured, there is solvent demand rather in abroad than in Hungary.
In Research Centre of Nyíregyháza had made organic farming since 1994, at present on 74 hectares.
In the first trial, variety comparison with 9 yellow podded French beans in organic and conventional farming was conducted. Varieties: Carson, Cherokee, Debreceni sárga, Goldmine, Héliosz, Minidor, Sonesta, Sundance és Unidor. The following parameters were observed: the time of emergence and flowering, number of plants per plot, plant height and flowing green harvest. We weighed yield of the standardized, un-standardized and diseased pod fractions. The results were evaluated statistically with SPSS and Excell softwares.
Emergence had all at once, but the plants of organic farming were 5 days earlier at flowering and maturity, than conventional farming.
The plants in organic place were more developed than in conventional ones. Emergence was more uniform, the growth and the number of plant were square. Significant difference was not detected in plant height between two places. Most of the varieties examined had better total yield in organic place, than in conventional ones. Deviation depended on variety. ‘Sonesta’ and ‘Debreceni sárga’ had the best yield in both places. In
conventional farming choice can be expanded with ‘Unidor’ and ‘Sundance’. In organic farming choice can be expanded with ‘Minidor’ and ‘Carson’.
In both places the Sonesta, Debreceni sárga and Unidor varieties had the most standardized yield per hectare. In organic place Carson variety had good pod yield because it was infected less by diseases.
In the another trial we studied inside content values of some varieties on organic and conventional places. The parameters were observed: dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, crude protein content and amino acid content.
The rates of asparagin or glutamine acid were the highest, which was followed by serin or histidine. In asparagin content was the most deviation between conventional and organic farming.
Significant differences were between varieties in dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, and crude protein content both on organic and conventional places. Each variety had significant differences between organic and conventional farming.
Starch had strong and negative correlation with dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content.
Budai piaci and Minidor varieties and BU-16 variety candidate had higher starch content and lower dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content on organic place. Sonesta variety had almost equal dry matter content on both places, but crude protein content was higher with 10% and starch content was lower with 6% on organic place, than on conventional place. Paridor variety had almost equal starch content, but it had higher dry matter and crude protein content on organic place. 

55
84
Development of the antioxidant indexes (FRAP, TFC, TPC) of scabbing resistant apple varieties in storage
89-94

One of the most important groups of bioactive substances in apples are antioxidants, which have a health-preserving effect. The amount of these compounds varies not only during the ripening of the apple fruit, but also continuously during post-harvest storage. A growing group of health-conscious consumers are looking for apple varieties with a nutritional value that satisfies their needs.

In the scope of our research, we examined 5 apple varieties originating from the Derecske horticultural site of KITE cPlc. in 2016. The plantation was planted to be suitable for intensive apple production. Samples were collected at the time of maturity (August-October) of the given variety. The 5 examined apple varieties (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda and Fujion) are all resistant to apple scab (fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis). The 2-month storage experiment was conducted at 16–17 °C, which had an aggressive effect on our stored apples. Total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content as well as FRAP values of the apples were measured. Measurements were taken immediately after harvest and after 1 and 2 months of storage. Our results were evaluated by using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. Our aim was to compare the antioxidant results of 5 scab-resistant apple varieties, which change continuously during storage.

The antioxidant content of our apple varieties increased during 2 months storage. The best result was achieved by the Modí apple variety (FRAP: 467.32 mg/100g; TFC: 317.76 mg/100g; TPC: 1771.97 mg/100g). Consumers may want to consume apples stored for a longer period of time if they are to absorb large amounts of antioxidants.

98
92
Effect of Irrigation on the Yield and Quantity of Potato Varieties
53-61

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area dropped dramatically in the last few decades. Additionally not only are we lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields, but the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habits and, often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2003 and 2004, in two years of significantly different precipitation, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, from which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
In Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However the effect of irrigation depends on the crop year. In a draughty year, like in 2003, irrigation could increase the yield by 10%, while in a more favourable wet year, the improving effect of irrigation was low.

70
106
Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species
313-317

Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop is in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
311.21 mg kg-1). 

Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

95
165
Quality comparison of selected apple cultivars under ULO-storage
62-75

Our examination was carried out in the 103 ha apple orchard of the Kasz-Coop Ltd.. The plantation works with modern varieties standing on M9 root stock, planted in a tree density of 2500 tree/ha and treated with professional integrated technology. The date of harvest is defined by a combination of several ripening analyses methods. The orchard has its own ULO-system warehouse.
Used in the experiment were four apple varieties: ’Idared’, ’Golden Reinders’, ’Jonagold’ and ’Braeburn’.
While under ULO-storage, we took 20-25 piece samples 6 times regarding the four varieties, from which 5-5 pieces were kept under three weeks’ shelf life, measured on a weekly bases. In our research, we analysed the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life, and the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric value under ULO-storage.
Analyses were based on the following measurements: flesh firmness, refractometric value and number of mature seeds.
We looked for morphological and morphological-quality correlations.
Through these we described the dynamics of the flesh firmness and the refractometric value under ULO-storage and three weeks’ shelf life for each variety. We referred to the stability of these attributes and to the dynamics of their change. Later, with the help of these, and also considering our practical experience related to the measurements, we characterised the four varieties.
We found a positive correlation between the seed number and the flesh firmness in the case of the ‘Idared’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Braeburn’ varieties, but no correlation was found in the case of ‘Golden Reinders’ in this concern. We visualized the standard deviation dynamics of the refractometric values under ULO-storage. This allowed us to categorise the varieties.

67
86
Studies on yield stability in autumn wheat species
61-66

The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The sowing structure adapted to the ecological background increases the yield and decreases the yield fluctuation caused natural effects. Exact long-term trials are essential to develop variety structure of winter wheat production suitable for the given ecological conditions. We have examined the productivity and yield stability of genetically different state registered winter wheat varieties. We have compared the varieties’ yield results in plot trials, at similar agrotechnical conditions, in different cropyears. We have examined the absolute and relative (compared to the mean of varieties) yield of winter wheat varieties. We have valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the connection between productivity and yield stability of varieties. We have pointed out the varieties with good productivity and yield stability in given agroecological conditions.
According to the results of our examinations the developing of variety structure suitable for the agroecological conditions could increase the potential and effective yield level of wheat production.

59
89
Effect of year and irrigation on yield and quantity of different potato varieties
7-14

dramatically in the last few decades. We are lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields. The ecological conditions are not favourable for potato, but the low yields other causes: the use of non-suitable seed, the low level of irrigation and nutrient supply and out of date machinery. The competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habit, and often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and selected quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2004 and 2005, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat (2004) and two rowed barley (2005) as a forecrop. The varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated. We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages and changes, and selected parameters of quality and chemical composition due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However, the impact of irrigation depends on the year effect.

63
116
Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
141-145

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investigated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

111
133
The setting of fenological- stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) varieties in 2012
93-96

We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties grafted on 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010. Our aim was to observe differences in the fenological-stages of plum rootstock and variety combinations. ‘Cacanska lepotica’, ‘Jojo’,

‘Katinka’, ‘Topfive’, ‘Topper’, ‘Toptaste’ plum varieties were planted on ‘Mirobalan’ (Prunus ceresifera var. ceresifera cv. myrabolan); damson (Prunus institicia) – ‘St Julien A’, ‘St Julien GF655/2’; and ‘Wawit’; ‘Wangwnheim’; ‘Fereley’ rootstocks. We observed the bud burst, the flowering course: at the start of the flowering, during the main flowering, and at the end of flowerings and the ripening of the plum. Finally we observed the difference in leaves falling observed in the case of the different varieties and rootstock combinations.

The bursting of buds started with ‘Cacanska lepotica’, in March 16 and finished with ‘Jojo’ / ‘Mirobalan’ combination, in March 22. The starting of flowering course was in March 29 with ‘Topper’ / ‘St Julien GF655/2’ combinations and the end of flowering course finished with ‘Toptaste’ varieties, in April 3–4. The start of ripening of the plum was with ‘Katinka’ / ‘St Julien A’ combinations, in July 17. and the end of ripening of the plum finished with ‘Topper’ variety. The start of leaves falling began with ‘Cacanska lepotica’, in Sept 5–8 depending on irrigation, and ‘Katinka’, ‘Jojo’ varieties finished, in November 28–29.

96
139
The parameters of homemade jams after storage
39-42

Nowadays producing jams is considered a traditional way of plum processing in Hungary. Plum jams without added sugar can be stored

This research aimed to analytically determine which quality parameters of the jams and to what extent they change during storage. Furthermore, this study intended to find out whether a concious consumer can presume any difference between varieties or the year of harvest, or wheather a one-time customer should suspect differences in quality parameters of the different products. This study focused on those differences or alterations in the parameters that occur in the jams made from several different plum varieties produced in different years.

I analyzed the classic chemical parameters (dry matter content and ash content) and physiologically important nutritional components (phenolic and flavonoids antioxidants and vitamin C). In this research I used jams which were produced from 6 varieties grown in 2009 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley), 4 varieties from 2010 (President, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta) and 6 varieties from 2011 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley). Jams were produced with traditional technology in cauldrons without added sugar. Jars were placed into a relatively dark and cool place and were stored there until the analysis.

Having regard to the results, when consumers choose between the different products they also choose quality since the processed plum variety, and the year of production/processing determine the nutritional value of the specific product. This could be used for market positioning and promotion of the product, however further research is needed to gain more information from the differences that derive from the varieties, year of harvest or other factors. This way fruit and jam producers could turn these informations into market advantage.

110
142
Integrated nutrient supply and varietal difference influence grain yield and yield related physio-morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties under drought condition
111-121

The ever-growing world population entails an improvement in durum wheat grain yield to ensure an adequate food supply, which often gets impaired by several biotic and abiotic factors. Integrated nutrient management, such as nitrogen rate × foliar zinc × sulphur fertilization combined with durum wheat varieties were investigated in order to examine the dynamics of yield and yield related physio-morphological traits under drought conditions. The four durum wheat varieties, three-level of nutrient supply (i.e. control, sulphur, and zinc), and two nitrogen regimes (i.e. zero and 60 kg ha−1) were arranged in split-split plot design with three replications. Zinc and sulphur were applied as foliar fertilisation during the flag leaf stage, both at a rate of 3 and 4 liters ha-1, respectively. Results showed existence of genetic variability for grain yield, plant height, NDVI, SPAD and spike density. Foliar based application of zinc and sulphur at the latter stage improved the plant height. Nitrogen fertilized varieties with lower spike numbers showed to better yield formation. Co-fertilization of nitrogen and zinc improved grain yield of responsive varieties like Duragold by about 21.3%. Spikes per m2 were statistically insignificant for grain yield improvement. It could be inferred that the observed positive effect of sulphur, nitrogen and zinc application on physio-morphology and yield formation substantiates the need to include these essential nutrients in the cultivation system of durum wheat.

64
128
Flesh firmness examination of scab-resistant apple varieties in a storage experiment
93-98

Of the different physical characteristics of fruits, one of the most essential qualities is flesh firmness, as is an important parameter when selling fresh apples, processing the fruit (processing industry) and during its storage. In the scope of our research, we examined five apple varieties originating from the Derecske horticultural site of KITE cPlc. in 2016. The plantation was planted to be suitable for intensive apple production. Samples were collected at the time of maturity (August-October) of the given variety. The five examined apple varieties (Gaia, Isaaq, Modí, Smeralda and Fujion) are all resistant to apple scab (fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis). The two-month storage experiment was conducted at 16-17 °C, which had an aggressive effect on our stored apples. Flesh firmness, weight and diameter were measured on three dates for each of the five apple varieties. Our results were evaluated using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software. We aimed to compare flesh firmness, weight and diameter of the five apple varieties and their changes during storage. Isaaq (86.34 N/cm2), Modí (94.06 N/cm2) and Fujion (84.90 N/cm2) had outstanding initial flesh firmness results. The Modí apple variety provided the best storage parameters.

95
145
Application of microsatellite fingerprints for pedigree analysis of Hungaricum grapevine varieties
71-77

the Carpathian Basin were involved into our examination, which aimed at genotyping their accessions. DNA fingerprints of 101 varieties were determined with 6 microsatellite markers till 2005, resulting in successful discrimination of the accessions. Based on these results for pedigree determination, even more cultivars and primers were involved into the analyses. For studying the origin of Csabagyöngye and for proving the parent-progeny relations of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály, 19 microsatellite markers were applied, while 11 were selected for tracing the origin of Királyleányka. Genetic distances between the varieties were estimated with cluster analysis and demonstrated by dendrogram, proving that the varieties can be discriminated from each other based on the microsatellite allele sizes. Pedigree of Irsai Olivér and Mátrai muskotály has been confirmed by microsatellite allele size results, searching for the parents of Csabagyöngye and Királyleányka is in progress, since the molecular-marker based pedigree does not correspond with the putative origin of these cultivars. Our results excluded progeny-parent relationships in the
Csabagyöngye-Bronnerstraube-Muscat ottonel (Ottonel muskotály) and the Királyleányka-Kövérszőlő combinations. 

84
101
Additional data for the evaluation of coat colour varieties in the Hungarian Grey cattle
44-47

When preserving genetic resources, one of the most important tasks is to conserve as much of the given gene pool for the future generations as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The great variety of coat colours seen in the Hungarian Grey cattle form part of the world’s genetic heritage. In order to maintain the world’s genetic diversity, we have to maintain these varieties, as well. The different coat colour varieties were determined – in both sexes and in several age groups – with a Minolta Chromameter CR-410 in an objective way. We found that the rate of the three main coat colour varieties of calves: the light reddish, the reddish and the dark reddish were 26%, 52% and 22%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the L*a*b* values of the reddish coat colour of the Hungarian Grey and the red coat colour of the Limousin calves. The rate of the crane, the grey and the light grey coat colour varieties were determined in the measured female groups. The L*a*b* values of the Hungarian Grey and Maremman bulls’ coat were compared and evaluated.

74
99
The Effect of Year and Irrigation on the Yield Quantity and Quality of the Potato
12-16

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area reduced dramatically in the last few decades, additionally we are lagging behind the Western European countries as regards yields and the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, the unpredictable market conditions, bad consumption habits and many times unfortunately the lack of quality products.
The ecological and climatic conditions of Hungary are not everywhere suitable for potato, in the area of Debrecen the amount of rainfall was lower, and the monthly average temperature was higher than the requirement of potato in its growing season in 2002 and 2003.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 8 and 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Out of the examined varieties 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up on 49.5 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, out of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the under-water mass, the amount of reducing sugars, the colour index of frying and the element contents of tubers.
Summing up, it can be stated that among the agrotechnical year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. On the basis of our results, it can be stated that in potato production variety should be chosen in accordance with the aim of production and technology should be adapted to that specific variety.

67
96
Preliminary test: Evaluation and selection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties resistant to drought and powdery mildew
33-37

Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) and (Oidium neolycopersici) are two harmful fungi that invade the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plant and grow in dry conditions. Under the influence of polyethylene glycol 6000 at a concentration of 12%, the total seedlings fresh weight, total seedlings dry weight, seedling growth rate of one seedling, seedling length, and tissue water content percentage for three tomato varieties were assessed. Despite the superiority of the (Mobil) tomato variety in terms of numerical values, the results revealed no significant differences between varieties. As a result, (Mobil) has greater vigor under environmental drought stress of lower osmotic stress than other tomato varieties. More work is required to evaluate the research selection of varieties resistant to biotic stresses in dry areas, such as powdery mildew disease.

93
104
1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>