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Comparison of the sample preparation methods worked out for the examination of the element content of wine
Published July 31, 2012
77-82

The examination of the potentially toxic elements content of the wines is not easy task, because the most elements are in little concentration (mg kg-1 or μg kg-1) in the wine and the wines contain great amount of organic matrix. The efficient sample preparation is essential for the accurate determination of element conte...nt. The eim of our research was to determine which sample preparation method will be the most efficient in examination of wines with ICP technology. The examined wine sample was a 2008 Chardonnay from the Eger wine region. We did the sample preparation and analysis examination in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology.
We did the analysis examinations with ICP- MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). We always did the sample preparations and the examinations in three times rehearsal. The applied sample preparation methods: dilution with distilled water, open digestion and microwave digestion. 
We were able to measure B, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn with only dilution and open sample preparation. In the smaller quantity present Sr and Ba were measurable in the wine in the case of all three methods well. We were able to measure the Co with dilution and open digestion method,  while Cr, Ni, and Te with only dilution method. In the case of arsenic we were not able to measure reliable result with dilution and open digestion method because of organic matrix and other components
(alcohols, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, polyalcohols and inorganic salts). On the whole we are able to say that in the case of certain elements (B, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba) the open digestion and dilution sample preparation is applicable well, however, in the case of certain elements (As, Al, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) we have to develop the methods. It may be development of one of the way, if we develop sample preparation methods to examined element specifically and not
to wine generally.

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Comparative analysis of sample preparation methods to determine the concentration of arsenic in soil- and plant-samples
Published March 23, 2016
167-170

Arsenic contamination of the fields and groundwater is a global problem. Alföld is the most affected area in Hungary. Irrigation witharsenic contaminated water, and crop production on the contaminated soil can cause a food safety problem, because arsenic is easy taken up by the cell of the plant roots. To prevent this, very important to monito...ring the arsenic content of soils and plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a fast, easy method to determined the concentration of minerals in the case of plant and soil samples The analytical methods can give reliable, results if the analytical process, including the sample preparation method, is the best. The objective of this study was to compare 3 type of sample preparation method which was dry ashing, wet digestion in open system, and microwave digestion. As a result of our experiement shows the microwave digestion is the appropriate method to determined the arsenic content of soil samples. In the case of plant samples we can use wet digestion in open system or microwave digestion as a samle preparation method.

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Comparison of sample preparation methods for the identification of Staphylococcus Aureus by MALDI-FOF MS
Published May 23, 2019
9-14

Coagulase-positive staphylococci include 3 species, Staphylococcus aureus, S. hyicus and S. intermedius. Of these three species, S. aureus is the most well-known human pathogen. S. aureus is part of the human and animal normal microbiota, however, it is capable of producing several staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) that cause intoxication sympt...oms of varying intensity in humans after consuming contaminated food. Selective media which are used for the determination of coagulase-positive staphylococci from foods are not able to identify isolates at a species. With the MALDI-TOF MS technique, we can identify S. aureus cheaper and faster than by using molecular methods. This paper describes the results of the study of the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci and S. aureus in many food products, and the application of three sample preparation methods: direct sample preparation, formic acid suspension and ethanol extraction.

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Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched food sprouts
Published March 11, 2014
23-28

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.

Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all... kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.

During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.

Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.

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Ragweed components in honey
Published August 29, 2017
65-68

The aim of this research was to prove that the syrup containing ragweed used for feeding the bees was transferred to the honey. To reach this goal we developed a method to analyse the volatile components of the samples. We applied two sample preparation methods. The first one was SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) preparation from the headspac...e of all of the samples. In the second case only the raw leaves of the ragweed were extracted with n-hexane and dichloromethane to complete the SPME results. The measurements were performed on GC-MS equipment. Chromatograms and data evolution showed that the components of the ragweed were also present in honey so they were transferred by bees.

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Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
Published May 16, 2012
31-35

The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we ...examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

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Development of seed analyses by means of various matrix solutions and the MALDI-TOF MS technique
Published May 23, 2019
53-57

The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, m...atrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.

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