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Investigation of combining ability and superiority percentages for yield and some related traits in yellow maize using line × tester analysis
Published May 20, 2020

Combining ability estimation is an important genetic attribute for maize breeders in anticipating improvement in productivity via hybridization and selection. This research was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of the 27 F1 maize hybrids established from nine lines derived from Maize Research Department and three t...esters, to determine general combining ability (GCA), determine crosses showing specific combining ability (SCA) and superiority percentages for crosses. Nine lines, three testers, 27 F1 hybrids and two check commercial hybrids (SC162 and SC168) were studied in randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with three replications during 2016. The results of mean squares showed that significant and highly significant for most studied traits (days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant and ear height, ear position, ear length, no. of kernels per row, 100-kernel weight and Grain yield). Estimates of variance due to GCA and SCA and their ratio revealed predominantly non-additive gene effects for all studied traits. Lines with the best GCA effects were: P2 (line 11) and P6 (line 21) for grain yield, for testers Gm174 and Gm1021 had significant GCA effects for grain yield. The hybrids P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1002 had significant and negative SCA effects for grain yield. Crosses P1×Gm174, P2×Gm1002, P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm174, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1021 were the best combinations manifested and significant superiority percentages over than check varieties (SC162 and SC168) for most studied traits. Therefore, these hybrids may be preferred for hybrid crop development.

Abbreviations: GCA general combining ability; SCA specific combining ability

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The significance of local meteorological stations in research planning
Published December 1, 2020

The goal of research planning is to optimize human and material resources while maximizing efficiency. If there are databases that can be used as a substitute for own data collection, effective research can be facilitated by reallocating resources. In the case of environmental studies, the knowledge of the climatic conditions of the study p...eriod is known to be a key factor in research planning process.

 In the present study, the data of our meteorological station in our research area (known as “Szamárháti Tanya”, Kesznyéten, Hungary) was compared with the measurements of meteorological stations operated by the competent water authority. Stations were taken into the study within a 10 and 20 km radius over a period of 21 months, to determine which provided more relevant data from the area.

During the evaluation of results, the relationship between the local and regional weather stations were determined, and deductions were made from the obtained results to support the decision which of the targeted investigations could be of greater benefit. 

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Comparison of the physiological responses of an oil-pumpkin cultivar and hybrid under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019

Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca is known as a medicinal crop among other cucurbits. The benefits of cucurbits fruits are very important in terms of human health, purification of blood, removal of constipation, digestion and supplying energy. The mutant styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. Pepo var. styriaca Greb.) exposes a complete lack... of lignification of the seed testa. For this reason, this kind of naked pumpkin seed is more consumable as snack than other seeds. The vegetative growth of plants is crucial for fruit production. Nitrogen is the most imperative element for the proper vegetative growth and development of plants which significantly increases and enhances yield and its quality by playing a vital role in the biochemical and physiological functions of plants.

Field studies were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen nutrition on certain physiological parameters and their differences between the styrian oil pumpkin hybrid and cultivar (Gleisdorfi Classic cultivar and GL Rustical hybrid). The small block experiment was carried out based on a factorial experiment with a completely randomised block design and four replications in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. Three different concentrations of nitrogen fertiliser was applied at sowing. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and carotenoids) were analysed as one of the basic factor of efficient photosynthesis. The yields of two genotypes were also measured in all treatments as seed-weight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in the oil-pumpkin hybrid, mainly the carotenoids in 2018. The vegetation period of 2018 was drier than in 2017, the hybrid oil-pupmkin was more efficient in stress tolerance than the cultivar with higher carotenoids pool. The obtained yield was more pronounced in the oil-pumpkin hybrid than the cultivar in all examined years. The hybrid GL Rustical was more sensitive to nitrogen treatment than the cultivar Gleisdorfi Classic.

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Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen
Published October 11, 2006

The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

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Comparison of supplier quality assurance methods for compound feed manufacturing from efficiency, product consistency and economical point of view
Published December 15, 2010

Feed manufacturing and human food production are the main routes of use for agricultural products. The food industryparticularly has intensively implemented the recent quality management principles and developed systems that facilitate the continuous improvement and efficiency of the industrial production. Feed production has taken similar appr...oaches however the intensity of deployment at the manufacturer and the rollout towards its supply chain has shown slower progress. The methods, that the feed manufacturer manages the supplier chain of mainly primer agricultural products according to, have a certain impact on the efficiency of the inbound operations, feed product quality and its consistency as well as on other resources. These methods have been built on sound quality management principles that are stated not only in quality standards but also in relevant regulations. Current study addresses the questions related to the link between supply chain quality management and feed product. The objective of the frontier research was to highlight the  theoretical possibilities and benefits of the robust design methodimplemented into animal feed manufacturing dealing with highly variable ingredients. 

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The impacts of spring basal and side dressing on maize yield
Published April 23, 2014

The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.

The aim... of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.

The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.

Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).

Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.

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Decreasing Energy and Water Use in the Meat Industry
Published March 4, 2005

The technology supervisions are needed from time to time in order to involve the new research results, experience, new technologies and equipments organising principles into the production and to make it cheaper and with less expenditure to increase the profitability and competitiveness. In the course of our investigation we aimed the analysis ...of the traditional technologies and improving of it. In this article we detail the heat treatment curing process. We applied the principles of experimental design for the determination the main influencing parameters in the processes. Then we made simulations and modelling in seeking for the environmentally better technology programs. We developed a method for measuring the temperature development of products with small diameter using the similarity theory in unit operation. In the course of the analysis of the heat treatment processes we could state that the heat treatment time can be reduced significantly by decreasing the size of the product and choosing the right ratios among the surface heat transfer intensity, ambient temperature and involving the lethality obtained during the cooling phase. The total sparing were about 10-20%. We solved the problem associated with the sensor placement error using a plastic material (metamid). We establish a curve between the real product temperature and plastic rod temperature by which the monitoring of the process became more accurate. We determine the size modification for different product sizes. In case of curing we observed very similar phenomena. For the determination of the diffusion coefficient we adopted the Ball-method not using in this field till today. We could reduce the excess saltiness and loss of NaCl with about 5%.

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Evaluation of the Green bean variety candidate BU-16
Published July 28, 2008

This study presents the results of the variety comparison trials conducted with the French bean variety candidate BU-16 on sandy soil, during two years at the Research Center of the University of Debrecen.
The outstanding characteristics of this variety candidate are the early maturity, the showy pods (yellow, straight, cylindrical cross-sec...tion „pencil bean”) and the high yield potential.
The experiments were conducted with a randomized design, with five varieties and four replications. The varieties (of which two are foreign and three are domestic) were as follows: BU-16 fj, Maxidor, Paridor, Hungold and Budai piaci. The individual plots were 2 m wide and 4 m long. The seeds were sown at a density of 30 germs per m2, with a row spacing of 50 cm.
The following parameters were taken: time of flowering, time of green maturity, plant height, height of the lowest pod above ground level, number of pods per plant, distribution of the pods by the state of development (20 plants), usable pod length (1 kg of standard crop-yield), yield per hectare based on the number of plants per plot. The experiments were evaluated statistically with Excel and SPSS softwares.
Results obtained with the variety candidate BU-16:
– The time from the emergence to green maturity is 45 to 46 days, which is short as compared with the other cultivars studied.
– Plant height is 38cm (two years average), which is among the highest ones, together with Paridor.
– The pods are set high above the ground level similarly to Paridor, the height of the lowest pod is 19 cm.
– The average number of pods per plant is 13 (two years average) similarly to Paridor and to Maxidor.
– The distribution of pod size in 2007 is as follows: 68% of the pods of BU-16 is of the standars size, which is a good rate. The value of this trait for the other varieties is 60 to 63%, except for Paridor, the value of which is similar to that of BU-16.
– The usable pod length (10 to 14 cm) is 63% in 2007 and 84% in 2006. Similar pod length rates were obtained for Maxidor, while the rate for Paridor is as high as 91%.
– The total yield and the standard yield of BU-16 is among the highest ones.
According to the results obtained and presented above, the variety candidate BU-16 is the earliest maturing among the varieties tested with high yield potential which, however, is not significantly different from that of the others. Significant differences can only be detected in plant height and the number of pods per plant. Considering the results, BU-16 is to be further tested.

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Önitatók konstrukciós és hidromechanikai vizsgálata
Published March 27, 2002

Our research aimed to examine Hungarian automatic drinking system constructions and hydromechanics under laboratory conditions and in operation with special emphasison the small volume, valve types.
Considering that no Hungarian standard of automatic drinking system examination and qualification exists, on the basis of technical literature, ...the new examination method of automatic drinking systems has been elaborated.
For laboratory measurements, a universal measuring bench was assembled which is applicable to the hydromechanic testing of all automatic drinking systems (cattle, sheep, pig).
Summary of the laboratory measurements:
Upon comparison of the flow capacity of the valves, in the case of same opening values (h/dn), the rubber spring valve of SZI type automatic fountain has the highest flow capacity, although in the case of 100 kPa pressure even this type has only 15-16 l/min value which hardly surpasses the lower limit of the desired 15-25 l/min range.
The loss coefficients of the valves, on investigating in the range 100-200 kPa, showed the lowest value (2,2-5,8) with the steel spring self drinking device.
Summary of the operational investigations:
In the long term operational investigations, the rubber stripped valve and the rubber spring automatic fountains had the most favourable operational reliability values: K4=0,98 and K4=0,94, respectively.
From the aspect of animal operation of the valves, all the Hungarian types are frontal operated, thus such system automatic valve drinking devices can be used only in long and moderately long stands, directed toward the animal.
On the basis of hydromechanical and construction examinations of the Hungarian tied cattle production technology the construction modification of the rubber spring valve of SZI type automatic drinking fountain, which is the most frequantly used in this country, was carried out. Due to design modifications the valve parameters improved significantly.
The goals of the accomplished valve modification were
ζ'sz – loss coefficient to be reduced
q – flow capacity to be increased

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The effects of different planting methods on sweet potato
Published December 28, 2018

The aim of our research program is to develop the production technology and to examine the possibilities of the utilization of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.). In 2016 and 2017, production technology experiments were set up with four replications in a randomized block design on an alluvial soil in Deszk, Hungary. In our field experiment...s, we obtained results of planting material production, planting methods and the optimized fertilization of sweet potato. Experimental plots were set up either with or without ridges. In heavy soils – where usually ridge planting is preferred –, in 2016, the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. In 2017, however, we got opposite results: based on the result of the harvest, the production technology with ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from tubers (primary transplants) or from shoots (secondary transplants) did not show significant differences, however, in both years, yield levels were higher on ridges with secondary transplants.

Sweet potato yield may vary widely among producers due to improper ridging and planting orientation. The aim of this study was to establish the proper ridging and planting orientation, so as to enhance constant reliable yields among sweet potato producing farmers.

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Behavior of some Hungarian wheat varieties to seed soaking in gibberellic acid under salt stress
Published May 16, 2017

Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity s...tress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.

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Agronomic research in Martonvásár, aimed at promoting the efficiency of field crop production
Published November 13, 2012

The effect of crop production factors on the grain yield was analysed on the basis of three-factorial experiments laid out in a split-split-plot design. In the case of maize the studies were made as part of a long-term experiment set up in 1980 on chernozem soil with forest residues, well supplied with N and very well with PK. The effects of N levels in the main plots and four sowing dates in the subplots were compared in terms of the performance of four medium early hybrids (FAO 200). In the technological adaptation experiments carried out with durum wheat, the N supplies were moderate (2010) or good (2011), while the P and K supplies were good or very good in both years. Six N top-dressing treatments were applied in the main plots and five plant protection treatments in the subplots to test the responses of three varieties. 
The results were evaluated using analysis of variance, while correlations between the variables were detected using regression analysis.
The effect of the tested factors on the grain yield was significant in the three-factorial maize experiment despite the annual fluctuations, reflected in extremely variable environmental means. During the given period the effect of N fertilisation surpassed that of the sowing date and the genotype. Regression analysis on the N responses for various sowing dates showed that maize sown in the middle 10 days of April gave the highest yield, but the N rates required to achieve maximum values declined as sowing was delayed. 
In the very wet year, the yield of durum wheat was influenced to the greatest extent by the plant protection treatments, while N supplies and the choice of variety were of approximately the same importance.  In the favourable year the yielding ability was determined by topdressing and the importance of plant protection dropped to half,  while no  significant difference could be detected between the tested varieties. According to the results of regression analysis, the positive effect of plant protection could not be substituted by an increase in the N rate in either year. The achievement of higher yields was only possible by a joint intensification of plant protection and N fertilisation. Nevertheless, the use of more efficient chemicals led to a slightly, though not significantly, higher yield, with a lower N requirement. 

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