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Economic Aspects of Bioethanol Production
Published September 22, 2004

Sustainability and multifunctionality look to be crucial points of the future of developed agriculture. Energy utilization of a part of the available biomass perfectly fits in these expectations. Bioethanol production allows for the substitution of the most expensive and most pollutable energy source, gasoline, by agricultural materials. This a...rticle contains a complex evaluation of economic characteristics of this method and calculations for the expectable economic effects of a would-be Hungarian bioethanol program. This essay includes the most important technological knowledge, a comparison between bioethanol and the competitive energy sources (gasoline, biodiesel, MTBE) and the most interesting elements of bioethanol programs operating in foreign countries. Introduced are which participants in the bioethanol chain have financial interests and counter-interests under present economic conditions in the spread of bioethanol by the enumerazation of macro- and micro-economic factors. The statements and consequences are based on my own calculatiosn so I am truly interested in any professional opinion.

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Development of maize production technology that increase the efficiency of bioethanol production
Published November 2, 2009

Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and also in Hungary, it can be utilized for multiple purposes: as a feedingstuff, for human nutrition and for industrial processing. In the last decades, the per ha yield of maize varied greatly in Hungary, between 2004 and 2006, it was 6.82-7.56 t/ha, while in 2007, it was only 3.6 t/ha. Resul...ting from this, the price of maize became 2-2.5 times higher. The high price hinders bioethanol production. The largest per ton amount of bioethanol, 387 l, can be produced from maize.
In addition to its classical utilization as feed and food, the industrial use (especially for bioethanol production) of maize is increasin.
For industrial production, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2007.
The applied fertilization treatment was N 120, P2O5 80 uniformly, and five different dosages of potassium: K2O 0, K2O 100 (KCl), K2O 100 (Kornkáli), K2O 200 (KCl), K2O 200 (Kornkáli) kg/ha active ingredient. The applied plant densities were 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 thousand plants/ha.
The yield of maize hybrids in the fertilization experiment ranged between 10.53 – 14.62 t/ha. Both regarding the form and dosage, 100 kg/ha Kornkáli proved to be the best potassium treatment. Regarding the inner content parameters, the highest starch content in the average of treatments was obtained for the hybrid PR36K67: 73.57%, and its yield was also the highest, so this hybrid proved to be the most suitable for bioethanol production. The highest protein content was observed for the hybrids KWS 353 (12.13%), which can be favourable for feeding purposes.
Most of the hybrids gave the highest yield at 80 thousand plants/ha plant density, however, hybrids PR36K67 and Mv Tarján achieved the highest yield at 90 thousand plants/ha.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch content, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance. 

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Development opportunities of biomass-based ethanol production in relation to starch- and cellulosebased bioethanol production
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The biomass is such a row material that is available in large quantities and it can be utilizied by the biotechnology in the future. Nowadays the technology which can process ligno cellulose and break down into fermentable sugars is being researched. One possible field of use of biomass is the liquid fuel production such as ethanol production. Based on the literary life cycle analysis, I compared the starch-based (first generation) to cellulose-based (second generation) bioethanol production in my study considering into account various environmental factors (land use, raw material production, energy balance). After my examination I came to the conclusion that the use of bioethanol, independent of its production technology, is favorable from environmental point of view but the application of second generation bioethanol has greater environmentally benefits.

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Detailed specification of the steps of dry milling ethanol production
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Durring the 2011 year I was given the possibilty to study in Indiana, USA for 5 months with the help of the Bloomington fellowship, and had the chance to study the bioethanol production in the given state. I focused mainly on the details of corn based dry milling large scale bioethanol production. The dry milling process is a relatively common production mode in the USA. In the coure of my research I tried to compare and to highlite the advantages of the dry milling process contrasted with the wet milling bioethanol production.

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The effect of NPK fertilization and the plant density on maize yield and bioethanol production
Published December 15, 2010

For industrial (bioethanol) production of maize, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2008.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch con...tent, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance.

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Evaluation of sweet sorghum and sudangrass varieties by the viewpoint of bioethanol production
Published April 23, 2014

Bioenergy and biofuels are very important in today’s energy policy. These kinds of energy resources have several advantages against fossil fuels. Environmental protection is a cardinal point of widespreading these technologies but the economic considerations are important as well. In order to improve the rate of the renewable energy in the en...ergy consumption, the European Union settled down a program which determines a minimum ratio of renewable energy in the energy consumption for each member country of the EU. To fulfil the requirements bioenergy and biofuels should be produced. This production procedure needs adequate stocks which are commonly agricultural products.
One of the promising stocks is sorghum. This plant fits for bioethanol production due to its juice content being rich in sugar. In this study six sweet sorghum hybrids, two sudangrass hybrids and a sudangrass variety have been evaluated to determine their theorical ethanol production capacity.
On the score of the results of the year 2009 it can be set that sudangrasses have a lower theorical ethanol capacity than sweet sorghums have. In the case of sweet sorghums 1860.29–2615.47 l ha-1 ethanol yields had been calculated, while the sudangrasses had only 622.96–801.03 l ha-1. After that throughout three years (2011–2013) the sweet sorghum hybrids have been evaluated in order to determine the fluctuations of the ethanol production capacity caused by the impact of the years. As a result 2425.44–4043.6 l ha-1 theorical ethanol capacities have been calculated, which means that sweet sorghums can be an adequate stock to produce bioethanol.

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Evaluation of various silo sorghum hybrids from the energetic aspect
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The sweet sorghum is a perspective plant of bioenergy, which can be the foundation of Hungarian bioethanol production in the future. By the examination six sweet sorghum hybrids have been examinated by the viewpoint of sugar aggregation and bioethanol production capacity. The founda tion of the surve y was three growing se ason (201 0, 2011, 2012 ). The ex per ime nt w as on the production sites of U niversity of Debrecen CAAES RISF Karcag Research Institute. The production site of the sweet sorghum have been sampled by samples of 1 m2 by hybrids within the period of august 15 and november 15. The sugar content of the samples have been measured by refractometer which was the base in the determination of ethanol production capacity.

As a continuation of the evaluation of energetic viewpoint the Higher Heating Value (HHV) have been measured from the bagasse of sweet sorghums. According to the results it can be stated that int he case of sugarcontent and the dinamics of the sugar aggregation can show several differences, while HHV of sorghum bagasse is within 16 200 and 16 900 J g-1.

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Evalution of energy for bioethanol production
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The objective of this study was the ethanol which classified as agro fuels. The aim of our research was the calculation of efficiency of bioethanol production, and evaluates the yield of maize hybrids grown for this purpose. We examined the energy demand of corn production per hectare in two vintages of 2009 and 2010. The focus of the experiment was placed in three different doze of fertilizer. Results show that the control corn plot used the least amount of non-renewable energy. Improving starch yield by adding fertilizer required additional nonrenewable energy inputs. So then the invested energy has a great impact on the efficiency.

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Biofuel production and its quality standards
Published February 10, 2013

The increasing consumption due to the decreasing amount of fossile energy resources, as well as the increasing fuel prices and living standard will justify the better utilisation of the opportunities lying in biofuel production. Certain countries produce biofuels for their own use or they even export them. However, there are countries which hav...e not decided which feedstock and technology to use. Biofuel – mainly biodiesel and bioethanol – use greatly contributes to environmental protection, decreased CO2 emission and reduced greenhouse effect.

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Characterisation of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS712
Published October 20, 2009

Fermentation at high temperature with application of thermotolerant microorganisms is a technological advantage in bioethanol production. Among the yeasts, K. marxianus has outstanding thermotolarance. The industrial application of the IMB3 strain occurs usually at 45C. The final aim of our project is the genetic modification of the K. marxianu...s CBS712 strain in order to achieve ethanol production at higher temperature than the currently applied. This requires the characterization of the CBS712 strain, with special attention to the determination of the temperature limit of its growth and the amount of the ethanol produced. The temperature limit of growth was 48C in YPD medium. Elevation of the temperature above 45C led to an exponential drop of the cell viability. Ethanol production was tested in shaking flasks, in MYFM medium, under oxigene limited conditions, applying variable concentrations of glucose (12–20%) and different temperatures (45–47 ºC). Preliminary results have revealed that the elevation of glucose concentration increased the amount of ethanol produced. The amount of ethanol (appr. 5%)+ produced at the highest glucose concentration was not different at the tested temperatures (45, 46 and 47 ºC). The observation indicates the potential in raising the thermotolerance of the strain. 

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Sweet sorghum (Sorghum dochna L.) restorer lines effects on nutritional parameters of stalk juice
Published November 2, 2009

Sweet sorghum can be utilized for bioethanol production because it has high sugar content (14-17%). We determined the most important nutritional values of 5 silo type sorghum lines in waxy and full maturation. The examined restorer lines were: RL 4, RL 9, RL 15, RL 18, K 1. The following nutritional parameters were examined: dry material conten...t, refractometric total sugar content, reducing sugar content. In waxy maturation 73.85-87.37% of dry matter in stalk juice makes the total sugar. Dry  material content, total and reducing sugar content of stalk
decreases from waxy mature to full maturation.
There are differences between lines in dry matter (SzD5%=0.76), total sugar (SzD5%=0.79), reducing sugar content (SzD5%=0.30). RL 4 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 10.07% to 10.02% during this period, reducing sugar also decreased from 4.01% to 2.47%. RL 9 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 11.76% to 11.08% during this period. Reducing sugar also decreased from 3.17% to 2.01% in the waxy
maturation. RL 15 showed a total sugar content decrease from 15.43 % to 15.36%. The reducing sugar also decreased from  3.23% to 1.71% in waxy maturation. In RL 18 total mean sugar content during waxy maturation was 13.78% which dropped to 13.26% approaching full maturation. Reducing sugar also decreased from 4.11% to 2.23% in waxy mature. K 1 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 9.35% to 6.15% during this period, while reducing sugar also decreased from 1.52% to 0.77%. 
These lines upcoming for experiments are perspectives since having excellent stalk juice nutritional parameters they are of great or very great height and their stalks are thick-very thick, stalk medullas are wet.

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Marginalisation and Multifunctional Land Use in Hungary
Published December 14, 2004

Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally wit...h the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.

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Energy Use of Biomass
Published December 6, 2005

In this study, energy utilization of biomass is introduced with a short description of renewable energy sources and utilization possibilities of biomass.
Presently, the necessity of renewable energy sources is increasingly obvious. Among renewables, energy from biomass is to be highlighted, since this allows versatile, cheap utilization of t...he sun’s energy. In this respect, Hungary has advantages. Direct heat utilization and biogas production are available procedures today, whereas biodiesel and bioethanol are expected to spread in the near future. Biogas production is possibly the most versatile method for biomass conversion: it can produce energy from materials inapplicable for other utilization; at the same time, it is capable of neutralizing harmful wastes; in the end, it produces also valuable fermentative products, from bio-manure useful in agriculture, to pharmaceutical raw materials.

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Comparison of Added Value between Bioethanol Production and the Most Important Animal Production Branches Based on Concentrated Fodder, as Potential Competitors
Published December 22, 2010

There are an enormous amount (2-3 million t/yr) of corn surplus is available year by year in Hungary. Inland utilization is an unsolved problem, whereas export facilities of raw (unprocessed) material could not be regarded as optimal way because of logistical barriers and the very low producer’s price. There are two basic opportunities for th...e export of the surplus of maize with reduced transportational costs and higher value: 
animal production and process of bio-ethanol. In Hungarian conditions both of them demand the same raw material so they should compete with each other for maize. Both need financial aid at least for the investment in order to reach profit. Decision makers are influenced by several factors in allocating of national supports between the differential branches, one of them could be the added value developing in the given vertical change. I will introduce and analyze the expectable added values of the abovementioned competitive activities.

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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
Published November 15, 2007

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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Comparative analysis of maize hybrides grown for bioethanol production purposes
Published May 16, 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crop year on the main components of maize grown for bio-ethanol production yield, starch content and starch yield per hectare of maize hybrids were investigated in a droughty (2007) and in a favourable years with optimal weather conditions (2008, 2009). We measured very low starch yield... (1.5 t ha-1) in the year with unfavourable precipitation supply (2007) together with higher starch content (73%). In the case of good precipitation supply we measured a much higher starch yield per hectare (7.7 t ha-1) with lower content (72.4%). In 2009 the starch content (74.5%) exceed the results of the two previous years, but on the other hand the average of starch yield was (4.9 t ha-1) which falls between the other two years values.

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Phenometric studies on stalk juice and sugar contents of silo sorghum types
Published December 21, 2008

Bioenergies (among them e.g. bioalcohol) can be solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels. For its production, plants with high sugar or starch content can be used. Juice pressed from the stalk of sugar sorghum has high sugar content (14-17%) that makes it suitable for bioethanol production. During our experiment, we examined 53 restorer ma...le lines; among them 22 were silo type sugar sorghum. We studied the following traits: plant height, breeding time, level of foliation, stalk diameter, characteristics of stalk medulla, juice content of stalk, sugar content of stalk juice. According to examined characteristics, we selected six restorer male lines for studies in the forthcoming years: RL 1, RL 2, RL 3, RL 4, RL 5, RL 9, RL 12, RL 15, RL 18. Their stalk medullas were wet, stalk diameters were medium-thick, sugar contents of juices varied between 17 and 24% at the end of milk mature. Harvest was made in September, they can be classified into early maturation group. Male sterile female lines were the following: SL 1, SL 2, SL 3, SL 4, SL 5. The maintainer male lines were: CL 1, CL 2, CL 3, CL 4, CL 5. In Hungary, there are only a few male sterile female
lines, so we will use these lines for hybrid production during the next years. 

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Alternative protein sources in the nutrition of farm animals
Published September 5, 2018

Protein requirement and its demand of farm animals became one of the critical problems in nutrition on a global scale. Protein requirement has been an explicit demand for a long period with soybean meal and animal protein, but recently there are some limitations in relation to their use and the availability of the high quality fishmeal decrease...s constantly. For this reason there is increased demand for finding new protein sources which could be the alternatives of soybean meal and fishmeal. Alternative protein sources can be divided into seven categories, according to their origin. In different countries, their use depends on the availability in large quantity and at reasonable price.

There is a long tradition of using legume seeds, as alternatives of soybean. Most of them contain some anti-nutritive compounds, but it can be reduced with systematic selection. Oilseed meals are also generally use in poultry and pig nutrition, but those crude protein content varied, depending on the oil extraction technology. Green fodder and leaf protein was also proposed as alternative protein sources, but their use is limited, in particular because of the market price. The amount of bioethanol and starch industry by-products increases gradually in recent years, therefore those became alternatives of soybean meal, or in much less extend, fishmeal. However, amino acid composition of such by-products are far from optimal for poultry and pig; therefore, in the case of their use amino acid supplementation is necessary. Several novel protein sources are proposed in the last decade, such as algae or insect proteins. Recently, their availability and use is limited, but in the near future those would be alternative protein sources in monogastric animal nutrition.

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