Most of the enterprises operating in Hungary belong to the group of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) which means that their total number of staff is less than 250. The aim of the study is to examine SMEs operating within the North Great Plain region. It provides a short summary of the general characteristics of the region, the situation and...significance of SMEs based on the data 2009 and it also clarifies the relevant definitions. The data shows that the enterprise type that is most characteristic in the the region is joint venture (the most popular type is Ltd). It can be laid down as a fact that the number of micro and sole entrepreneurs is also significant in the area. It is also clear that the majority of small enterprises deals
with commerce, while most of the medium enterprises are involved in industry (processing industry). As a continuation of the examination, size of investments, influx of foreign capital, ratio of employed people and grant opportunities are also to be evaluated since these factors influence the operation of enterprises as well.
Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural innovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on own databases and case studies.
Competitiveness studies have shown that innovation could be breakout point for some economies, regions and enterprises. Knowledge acquisition, creation and exploitation of the knowledge base have been an essential element for economic growth. These knowledge-based economic processes come together with the innovation. Measurement of innovation b...y indicators has been playing a really emphatic role in making strategy whether it is national or EU planning.
Enterprises have always tried to measure and quantify their innovation activities mostly through the results of their economic process. Companies have generally considered their products as part of the innovation. That was the reason that in most cases they only and exclusively focused on the finished product. Some of them was able to realize that details of the production process must be taken into account in order to the whole innovation activity could be measured.
That is why I find it important to examine of what the innovativity of enterprises is made of, and in which way they can be measured.
In addition I was looking for the answer to the questions that how much the measuring method allows you to compare enterprises for further examination.
The development of measurement methods is an essential moment of the article. As it is compiled for me the most important aspect of innovation, according to the statistical document, the Oslo manual guides you through the measurement methods and operational processes They play a very important role in proving my hypothesis. Overall, our country’s innovation results show those areas where we have high endowments, and also those where are the weaknesses.
Of course, systems and tools defined by the governing authorities of national economies will have the main role but the activity of the European Union will be the frame in the end, because without subsidies from the EU budget, national budget wouldn’t be enough to implement these aims.
Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.
The general tendency of the last few years has been that besides large agricultural Ltd.’s and firms, smaller agricultural enterprises also have to correspond to stricter environmental regulations.
This process suits the EU’s environmental and waste management regulations. Recently, manure, liquid manure and addle are registered as non h
In the case of the amount of these wastes is larger than 200 t/year, one has to make an individual waste management plan.
Accordingly, several small agricultural enterprises have to make individual waste management plants in Hajdú-Bihar County.
This article is based on the results of these companies experiences.
revolutions and changes. Effects of these changes can be sensible at all parts of agricultural production. It results in new ownership and organisation structure. Agriculture has to suit to the new circumstances of changed firm-size and structure. These kinds of changes essentially define conditions of agricultural production in the future, and... they have an affect on husbandry of enterprises.
To be succeed in managing changes, we have to know the reasons of these alterations and nature of them. It is very important to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of the typical change-management methods and its typology. These methods are more elaborated and widespread at industrial enterprises. It is necessary to get to know the nature, characteristics and reasons of changes, and we should work out ways agricultural companies, taking notice of their speciality.
The methods and means of examinations
We aimed to point out what kind of changing processions were typified the activity of agricultural ventures. What are the speciality, strains, the arousing and obstructive factors of nowadays changes. We made questionnaire and sent them to numerous enterprises.
Most of the answers show that leaders are „floating with flow” and most part of their power is used to fight back actually challenges. Generally consciousness is missing, so they are not govern the events still more they are passive objects of occurrence.
Naturally, the given answers show, that the most important changes of past are changing of markets, importance of quality production and changes in the structure of enterprises. And – especially at companies, which deal with plant growing –, modifying of structure because of compensation.
Personal fulfilment, financial security, flexibility, relationships, information, rules - these are all hallmarks of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, one more important factor should be added to the list, which enables satisfaction resulting from reliable income and self-fulfillment: this is openness. An open mind to changes, to novelties, an...d to the workforce is necessary. The central question of the present research is how to effectively develop Hungarian small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, especially in the Transdanubian region, by utilizing these factors. In addition to production, institutional and price risks, agricultural enterprises, like other sectors, are also affected by massive labour shortages and resource-intensive development objectives. In the research, primary agricultural producers, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed through questionnaire in the second and third quarters of 2019. Using the snowball method, both the development opportunities and the risks were mapped in this sector, mostly among growers. The research results show that there is a correlation between satisfaction and development and favorable workplace relationships. These correlations were presented by demonstrating the relationship between technological development, income satisfaction, stable job creation, and the need to try new developments. However, there seems to be an invisible boundary to development in the examined field, which may stem from uncertainty, and yet, it is important to maintain development and learning activity so that the right knowledge and know-how is available to the business when needed. Since the results show that there is a lack of openness to new technologies among the farmers in the studied region, and this may pose a problem in the future in terms of meeting the expectations of precision farming, it is recommended to focus on innovation in the agricultural sector in Hungary.
The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production. The available data was classified and averaged on the basis of the form of association.
Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured a profit, closer analysis of their cash flows reveals that, at least in some cases, expense
In the information society we are living in the whirl of information but this doesn’t mean that we are in full possession of information for our present decisions. We gain the information at time in insufficiently detailed another time in too detailed form, and the information were gained from different sources may be contradictory. The actor...s of market recognize the power of information but – as in the case of other-type resource utilization – the preparation of this information-power needs more or less investment. Greater part of the small and medium-size agricultural enterprises haven’t tool at all to gain the economical information. After the EU-connection if one of these enterprises will apply for financial support it needs supply continuous and detailed data about own activity for European Community. The main question that can exist exact data-supply without appropriate computerized background. On the other hand if an enterprise has information system it will have the market-goods on the others which don’t have such an investment.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The company’s activity, profitability and growth potential are influenced by risk and uncertainty derived from the economic environment. The principal thing that makes difference between risk and uncertainty is the capacity to be quantified, and then the risk can be measured, whereas uncertainty is not. Specific risk types of agricultural enterprises are on the one hand the economic risk and specific risk arising from the main agricultural activity. The economic risks include financial risk categories like market risk, liquidity risk, credit risk and operational risk. Macroeconomic risk manifest also a significant influence to the company and the importance of taking into account of this, importantly increased in recently years. In present paper, I quantified the total risk of company by using financial and operating leverage indicators. The company’s growth was characterized with internal growth rate and sustainable growth rate. The present research aims to explore risk and growth level of agricultural companies and grouping companies by different characteristics. In present analysis I have used cluster analysis. From the results I can summarize, that the agricultural enterprises growth is made by using internal financing resources and their financial leverage level is lower that operating leverage level.
Address social and economic processes of social capital system between universities and the business sector – because of their special and similar characteristics – major emphasis will be displayed. Knowledge-intensive companies would be hard to imagine functioning without established links with tertiary education institutions and universit...ies can now functions would be unthinkable without displaying the corporate sector sectoral specificities of knowledge and strategies of the university.
Because of the development of knowledge-intensive business activities based on innovation-oriented economic development which are specific to innovative SMEs, funding sources and opportunities. In a typical operating environment of innovation, with sectoral, spatial and temporal factors are constantly changing. These factors are decisive elements in the innovation opportunities, and through this indirectly the success of these enterprises. The resources involved in mediating the markets perceive a high risk to price this innovation activities and their funding. Under the study to try to answer that by optimizing the functions of universities, how and in what form they may have a role in mitigating financial risks.
The aim of the study was the examination of the achievement of the Hungarian agricultural enterprises – special regard to the agricultural co-operatives – based on the aggregated database of Hungarian Tax and Financial Control Administration (APEH), from the database of the Research Institute of Agricultural Economics. From the methodologic...al aspect plain statistical devices were used, indicators for corporate analyses were
calculated and analyzed for the time series. One important conclusion is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that over the general examination of economic actors on an aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single enterprises forms would be needed. In the case of the co-operatives the separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the new type co-operatives would be necessary
Agriculture in Hungary was characterised by the duality of large-scale farms (co-ops and state farms) and small-scale private enterprises until the beginning of the 1990s. Due to the privatisation and transformation of co-ops farm structure has significantly changed. The transformation of the structure is not considered to be a completed proces...s. Level of concentration and integration on private farms are rising, new co-operation forms are appearing and new types of enterprises and producers’ groups are being formed.
Concentration and integration have great importance in the dairy sector among agricultural enterprises. In recent years, milk production in the European Union has been characterised by concentration, leading to greater competitiveness. Today, most dairy producers belong to different kinds of producers’ organisations as concentrated demand may only be competitive by meeting concentrated supply. In Hungary, the problems of production have been the fragmentation and decrease of the average farm size while, at the same time, concentration has occurred in the processing sector. Establishing producers’ groups may be one of the solutions for improving competitiveness production.
The University of Miskolc – as part of a needs assessment – took up contact with businesses that have the nature of the industry in line with the strategic objective areas of the institution. The survey focused on industry-wide is so limited, most of the knowledge-intensive company was that the knowledge economy is distinguished by relevant... stakeholders through innovation activity.
The research results of the questionnaire are within the framework of this study, we intend to review how the knowledge-intensive small and medium enterprises differentiate implantation of the headquarters and activities their scope.
There are two types of embeddedness adapt the functions of universities with the aim to investigate the geographic scope of their activities in the extent of whether there is any impact on the local embedded and engagement.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays employment is a hot topic in Hungary. The rate of inactive people on the labour market is very high. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the State for example for the group “people living with disabilities”. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of “people living with disabilities” can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of “people living with disabilities”).
The main objective of this paper is to give an overview about the economic results and financial status of agricultural enterprises in Hajdu-Bihar Count, as well as, froa methodology viewpoint,find the place of the used indexes in the system of effectivity indexes in farm management . From the complex database describing the enterprises, the fi...gures on the balance sheets and profit and loss accounts were used and analysed. As a result of the analysis the below statements can be made:
The owner’s equity ratio within the total equity is very different in corporations and in individual farms. The lower values in case of corporations show their indebtedness. At the same time, the figures indicate that it is more difficult for individual farms to receive loans.
The average of dynamic indebtedness indexes, in case of individuals are closer to 0 which generally derives from the low level of liabilities. The same indexes of corporations o the other hand show significant indebtedness. The figures indicate that the yearly cash flow can hardly cover the net liabilities.
The profitability proportional to the production value is generally low, mostly negative, independent from size and organisational form.
As a summary, it can be said, that individual as well as corporate farms suffer financing problems, the nature of these problems is different in the two groups. On the on hand, the operation and development of the individual, mostly the smaller, farms are hindered by the difficulties of acquiring external capital. On the other hand, the results of corporate, mostly the cooperative, farms is impeded by the burdens of liabilities accumulated in previous years.
The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general,...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.
Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.
The huge insolvency of the enterprise organizations is very adverse for the national economy, the first social and economic task of each country, Hungary as well, should be the maintenance
of the efficient and viable organizations. The liquidation of the agricultural organizations has much more economic and social effects. As a result of my
time the causes, which led to the liquidation of agricultural organizations, are independent from the organisation and are external. The common feature of external causes are that they are
not influenced by the organisations, so they cannot be avoided. So the adaptation to the external causes has huge importance in the battle of avoidance of insolvency.
The income of agricultural enterprises varies greatly according to the type of agricultural production.
We analysed the financial situation of some agricultural companies from Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Hajdú-Bihar counties. We got the data from the Department of Justice from reports made between 1997-1999. The available data was classifie
Although the management of the examined enterprises ensured profit, closer analyses of their cash flows reveal that, at least in some cases, expenses were not always coverable, despite income. Both counties, major emphasis was on improvement and support investments. It is highly probable that these investments will later result in an increasing income level and profit.
Altogether we cannot say which county enjoys a better situation, and what the reasons for the differences are. Further data collection and analyses are needed to find the answers.
Innovation, as a factor influencing the success of farming, is of outstanding importance also in agriculture. Only those businesses (enterprises, companies) can be successful in the longrun which are able to adapt the new technological elements and to make their own developments occasionally and make them suitable for practical utilization.
The analysis of capital system of agricultural corporations is a key issue of economics and the effect of it's fluctuation can be observed on several fields of the life of corporations.It influences
for example the assets-, financial- and income situation of the enterprises.The aim of this study is to analyse the connection between capital s
a ratio for the capital leverage and liabilities, by which it can say, to that connect the profit or loss. By the analyse get activity- and size specified results.With the empyrical results I determine the quantile point between the profitable or the non profitable operating.
The structure of Hungarian agriculture should be changed before the EU accession. The new structure should fulfill EU requirements and also produce competitive products. Unconventional products (mushroom, fish, honey etc.) have a lot of advantages: they can be produced on small farms, their trade is mainly free of regulation and their markets a...re almost unlimited. This paper deals with one of these alternative agricultural enterprises, namely mushroom production. Hungarian mushroom production – in spite of difficulties – has witnessed remarkable expansion: it has increased its production by fourfold and its export by fivefold in less than ten years. The low level of wages gives Hungary significant advantage over its competitors. If we could ensure the appropriate infrastructure (technical advice, bank loans, etc.) the mushroom industry would become one of the most profitable sectors of Hungarian agriculture.
The theme of my PhD research is the online marketing possibilities and judgment of the domestic food-sector. This article is based on the important bibliography of my research theme. I show the new categorization of the tools of marketing communication. I examine the recent years’ changes of the social approach and the interactivity. Based on... the meeting of the Internet I separate our ages’ generations. Furthermore I examine the transformation of consumers into users in the digital environment. I prove the changes of the Internet’s penetration and the presence of enterprises in the Internet with statistic data. I touch the tendency of information searching in online environment. I present new methods to measure the online marketing activities’ return.
Finally, I define my objectives of research based on my own experience and bibliography overview over and above I draw up my concrete future’s research which I separate seconder and primer section.