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Effects of paraffine oil on leaf and berry mycobiota on two grape varieties
Published October 24, 2016
61-66

Application of fungicides have advantages and also some direct or indirect disadvantages, such as imbalance and/or fungicide resistance in microbe population. To avoid these problems the development of alternative, eco-friendly methods like mostly spraying with oils are in the focus nowadays. The investigations of the effects of fungicides on m...icrobiota in some cultivations can give a more complex view to this topic and developmental possibilities. In the present study, our aim was testing of the effects of paraffine oil (as alternative fungicide) on microbial properties (CFU and rate of filamentous fungi and yeasts) of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos leaves and berries.

Our results from 2014 showed that the application of paraffine oil as sole spray agent can decrease the presence of saprophytic filamentous fungi on the berries of Chardonnay (susceptible for fungal infections). In the case of Kékfrankos berries opposite properties were observed, which may be the result of the absorption of oil by the thick wax layer of this variety. The oil treatment did not affect the yeast population of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos berries contrary to negative effect of the regular pesticide treatment. The selective fungicide effect of paraffine oil against filamentous fungal population caused the accumulation of yeast cells in the mycobiota of grape berries. The careful use of this yeasts in spontaneous fermentation can improve the aroma profile of wines. The year of 2015 did no prefer the growth of fungi, therefore no interesting properties were detected in the mycobiota of grape varieties. The occurence of the harmful saprophytic filamentous fungi predicted to be increased in mild climate agricultures as the result of the climate change.

In summary, the paraffine oils are seem to be promising tools for the eco-friendly control of harmful fungi of grapes.

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Anti-Oxidants in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
195-200

Today’s programmes aiming at enhancement of fruit and vegetable consumption have been intensified. In the unanimous view of experts, different health problems, such as those of the immune system, inflammations, and even certain cancerous diseases can be prevented and/or cured with regular consumption of fresh (raw) fruit and vegetables. It is... well-known fact that among the biologically valuable components, antioxidant compounds – C- and E vitamins, as well as carotinoides – play an important role. In this field, Hungary can expect success in the future since it has excellent plant genetic stock. Regretfully, national data banks regarding cultivation technology, cultivation areas or varieties for fruits and vegetables and their antioxidant contents do not exist in Hungary. Nevertheless, in connection with the so-called “Hungaricums” its existence would be of urgent necessity. Such excellent Hungarian products are – among others – a lot of sour cherry varietiles, the Szeged green pepper and the Makó onion. They enjoy high priority as “Hungaricums” even in the European Union and such activities that support these kinds of products should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. Presently’ the USA leads in the research of antioxidant compounds of sour cherry, and so far 17 of these compounds have been found partly in Hungarian varieties. Similar research on green, and ‘pritamin’ peppers have not gone so far since they were limited only for seasoning paprika. In Hungary, studies on onion and garlic have not been performed. It should be mentioned that due to the continental climate, these products may be cultivated, consumed or processed only in a limited period. Taking this into consideration, processing and conserving methods are needed which make the consumption of these fruit and vegetables as functional food possible year-round. Scientific establishment of this set of questions is of current concern, because consumption of these products could have an important role in improving the health status of the Hungarian population in the future.

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Environmental Management Research on the Berettyó River
Published May 4, 2004
161-165

Our department is involved in ongoing research into the hydrological and ecological interplay of the Berettyó River.
In the first part of our study we classified the Hungarian section of the river from ecological and hydrological standpoints. We determined three typical parts of the river: a sandy and gravely bottom, a middle part with a sa...ndy and muddy bottom, and a lower part, with muddy bottom. In theese sampling areas we measured and established the more important static and dynamic hydrological, physical and chemical characteristics.
For the planned research we did a primary estimation of the environmental condition of theese sampling areas, on the basis of applicable biological and ecological indication methods.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Supplementary botanical examinations for modelling the grass production of the great pasture of Hajdúbagos
Published October 10, 2008
17-21

Our botanical survey at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos is a part of a broad research that aims to predict the production of the grass at the given area. As the mentioned pasture is a nature conservation area, the usage of artificial fertilizers or other classic grassland management methods in its handling are prohibited. Thus grazing is an im...portant tool for the management of this area, however the not suitably regulated grazing order and the poorly calculated carrying capacity cause serious problems at some parts of the pasture. The prediction of the grass yield is essential to
avoid both over- and both under-grazing and for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and the grazing method, thus the most suitable management strategy.
The potential grass yield is easily calculable with a computer model that will be established as a basis for determining the grass production. For the sake of getting an accurate view of the plant associations of the pasture, we created examination quadrates and determined all plant species found in the quadrates. After plant determination, we compiled a coenological table in which we marked besides the scientific name and families, the life forms of each species that refer to the structure, morphology and thus the adaptability of plants to their environment. We determined the
TWR, so the thermoclimate, water and soil reaction values, the nature conservation values, as well as the covering values of each plant species (DB), and the total coverage of the examination quadrates (B%).
According to the covering values, grasses proved to be characteristic plants at the examined pasture, thus we need to consider them influential in calculating the animal carrying capacity and with the rest of the information, we need to supply the model.
The life forms and TWR indicators, all together with the nature conservation values provide further important data to the development of the management suggestion of the protected pasture. By examining these values to different parts of the area, we could get an exact view on the measure of the degradation effects. This promotes the determination of grazing methods and the forming of the boundaries of certain pasture sections, to avoid  those harmful anthropogenic effects that seriously endanger this extensive sandy pasture. 

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Composition and role of hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in an organic apple orchard
Published November 2, 2009
57-61

The use of hoverfly (Syrphidae) larvae in biological control is gaining more attention where the damage by their prey, aphids is  significant, especially in agricultural fields and orchards, where they lower the number of aphids. The present study focuses on one hand on faunistics, on the other hand on testing the different available colle...cting methods for later research. Collecting in an organic apple orchard near Debrecen yielded 525 specimens of Syrphidae mostly by netting but also with white tray traps. Collected species are differentiated according to their feeding (94.1% aphidophagous). The three species found in greatest numbers are Sphaerophoria scripta (Linnaeus, 1758), Melanostoma mellinum (Linnaeus, 1758) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776). The available information on their biology is reviewed and their potential value of hoverflies in biological control is discussed.

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Sensitivity of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration
Published September 18, 2014
51-56

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The knowledge of the evapotranspiration of natural ecosystems and plant populations is of fundamental importance in several branches of science, research topics and practical uses. Nevertheless, the harmonization of the large number of methods and the changing user needs often causes problems. Sensitivity analysis of 10 ET0 estimation models and model variants was performed. Magnitude of the obtained outputs and the changes triggered by each atmospheric parameter were evaluated. The objective of the analyses was to get to know the sensitivity of the different models and to select the most accurate and the most suitable ones for adaptation to local circumstances. Therefore, it becomes possible to achieve as high accuracy as possible in applications which need ET0 estimation.

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Need for measurement of the innovation at Hungarian SMEs
Published April 8, 2014
5-13

Competitiveness studies have shown that innovation could be breakout point for some economies, regions and enterprises. Knowledge acquisition, creation and exploitation of the knowledge base have been an essential element for economic growth. These knowledge-based economic processes come together with the innovation. Measurement of innovation b...y indicators has been playing a really emphatic role in making strategy whether it is national or EU planning.

Enterprises have always tried to measure and quantify their innovation activities mostly through the results of their economic process. Companies have generally considered their products as part of the innovation. That was the reason that in most cases they only and exclusively focused on the finished product. Some of them was able to realize that details of the production process must be taken into account in order to the whole innovation activity could be measured.

That is why I find it important to examine of what the innovativity of enterprises is made of, and in which way they can be measured.
In addition I was looking for the answer to the questions that how much the measuring method allows you to compare enterprises for further examination.

The development of measurement methods is an essential moment of the article. As it is compiled for me the most important aspect of innovation, according to the statistical document, the Oslo manual guides you through the measurement methods and operational processes They play a very important role in proving my hypothesis. Overall, our country’s innovation results show those areas where we have high endowments, and also those where are the weaknesses.

Of course, systems and tools defined by the governing authorities of national economies will have the main role but the activity of the European Union will be the frame in the end, because without subsidies from the EU budget, national budget wouldn’t be enough to implement these aims.

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Analysis of aerobic biological waste treatment methods especially in the case of composting
Published September 18, 2014
33-37

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used in agriculture. The characteristics of the organic wastes in most cases make the direct utilization impossible, they need pre-treatment before use. One treatment solution of these wastes is composting. During composting the organic wastes lose their hazardous characteristics and we gain a final product, the compost, which can be used in agriculture as organic fertilizer. The main conditions of effective composting are the follow and understand of the degradation process. During our research we examined different measuring methods (gas concentration and reflectance measurements, temperature mapping) that makes a cost and time effective possibility to directly analyze the degradation.

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Complex assessment of inland water fish stocks
Published April 11, 2007
74-80

In the domestic fish production, natural waters have yielded for several years about 7-8 thousand tons. This, from the point of view of outputs, considering the almost 130 thousand hectares of natural water, is rather low, it means approximately 55-60 kg/ha mixed fish.Although the various natural waters can differ significantly on the basis of ...yields, yet on the majority of the territories, the results were low. In the case of our extensive still waters and rivers, the reason can undoubtedly be found in the combined effect of the lack of the possibility of reproduction of the fish stock and the over-fishing. Fishery built on planning supposes the best possible knowledge in the given circum stances of the parameters of the water area and its fishstock. Lacking this knowledge, it is not possible to establish the optimal use fulness of the resources, what is more, the management can make faulty decisions – as a result of a lack of information -, which can risk the success of later activities.
It is known that many factors have an impact on the success of the fishery, as well as some information in connection with the water area and the fish stock are necessary, the knowledge of which make it possible to manage the fishery in a planned way. One part of the information is available, while the other part is incomplete or not deep enough. The necessary data are dissimilar depending on their nature, can be obtained from different places, by different methods.
As the first step for executing the field surveys and processing data, I developed a complex model, which contains in a unified system the steps of estimating the fishstock. I made the sampling on the basis of this. Part of the model is a fish faunistic survey, as well as a morphological survey of the water area. The information gained from these are important for making more accurate the system of devices of the samplings for stock estimation (duration, number of net-rows) and for assigning its place (places representing the best way the physical characteristics of the given water area). The major stages of stock-survey: A) faunistic survey, B) physical survey of the bed, and C) sampling with the help of gill-nets. This is followed by the evaluation by the computer module.
The results of the research create a methodological and technical background for the fish faunistic and population biologic surveys still performed in different ways in our country, and by applying these methods together, all basic information about natural waters which help decision-making concerning fisheries can be obtaine deffectively.

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Examination of CO2 emission of different stubbles on a chernozem soil
Published November 3, 2010
53-59

Applying alternative soil cultivation methods based on reduced disturbance of the soil more favourable conditions can be created in order to increase the organic matter content of the soil and the availability of the nutrients for the crops. In complex soil tillage experiment – in 1997 was set on – at Karcag, as the element of the investiga...tion of soil reduced and conventional tillage systems. There is close correlation between the degree and intensity of CO2-emission from the soil and the structural state and organic matter content of the soil. In order to quantify the increased CO2-emission from soil due to soil preserving cultivation systems, in situ CO2-emission of soil was measured by means of an ANAGAS 98 infrared gas analyser. The soil type of the investigated plot is meadow chernozem solonetz in the deeper layers, a soil type that is characteristic
for the Trans-Tisza Region of Hungary. In this paper the results gained from the measurement on different stubbles are published, as we consider stubbles the most suitable state when the effects of different soil cultivation systems on the microbiological activity of the soil can be compared. Experimental data provided information about the length of the time period when CO2 emission increasing effects of soil cultivation are observable. Studying the effect of different soil cultivation methods on the CO2 emission from chernozem soil is indisputably actual and needs more efforts as it can contribute to develop a more environmental friendly agricultural production. The main goal of these measurements was to determine the effect of soil cultivation technologies and certain agrotechnical elements on the factors of the soil carbon cycle.

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The effects of different planting methods on sweet potato
Published December 28, 2018
173-177

The aim of our research program is to develop the production technology and to examine the possibilities of the utilization of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.). In 2016 and 2017, production technology experiments were set up with four replications in a randomized block design on an alluvial soil in Deszk, Hungary. In our field experiment...s, we obtained results of planting material production, planting methods and the optimized fertilization of sweet potato. Experimental plots were set up either with or without ridges. In heavy soils – where usually ridge planting is preferred –, in 2016, the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. In 2017, however, we got opposite results: based on the result of the harvest, the production technology with ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from tubers (primary transplants) or from shoots (secondary transplants) did not show significant differences, however, in both years, yield levels were higher on ridges with secondary transplants.

Sweet potato yield may vary widely among producers due to improper ridging and planting orientation. The aim of this study was to establish the proper ridging and planting orientation, so as to enhance constant reliable yields among sweet potato producing farmers.

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The examination of alveographical parameters of winter wheat varieties
Published December 21, 2008
87-91

Nowadays, many methods have been worked up in the interests of objective expression of winter wheat rheological quality. These define wide spectrum in view of their complexity and apparatus claim. The needs for the methods are definitely increasing in Hungary, too. It is very important to get acquainted with the alveographical quality and quali...fication and also their using in wide range.
In our research we examined the alveographical parameters of 12 winter wheat varieties in Szeged (in Hungary) on the basis of the results in three years (2005-2007).
We established with correlation analysis that there is no statistical relation between the alveaographical W and G values. The other alveographical parameters have significant correlation.

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Effect of harvest on the different fertilization methods of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
Published February 3, 2016
33-37

The experiments were performed in the University of Debrecen Centre for Agricultural Research Institute of Nyíregyháza of 1500 m2 asparagus plantation in 2011. We were determind the number of shoots, plant height, fold thickness and yield of asparagus hybrid. I studied to the effects of various cropyear is addition Grolim hybrid asparagus gro...wth and development. Compared to previous years, 2014 was unusually wet and cold weather conditions which causes the plantation has developed outstanding. The soil temperature early and dynamic increase due to, the harvest had started a one month earlier 2014 than the 2013. The experiment asparagus harvested from lower yields as a result of the extremely dry spring in 2015.

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Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha
Published February 25, 2014
83-88

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized....>

The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.

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The use of MFA indicators in the characterization of the settlement sustainability
Published September 2, 2009
107-116

One of the key sustainability challenges for the coming decades will be to improve the management of natural resources in order to reduce current levels of anthropogenic environmental pressure and respect the biological and physical limits and the carrying capacity of the planet. The first step towards meeting this challenge is an enhancement o...f the understanding of the material basis of our society. In the past 15 years, scientists in several research institutes have created a fast growing field of research, a new family of different methods, named material flow analysis (MFA). These instruments have an increasing policy relevance: international organizations (UN, EU, OECD) have encouraged member states to establish MFA accounting in their statistical programmes and urged governments and economic actors to use these tools. In this paper I present selected examples to reveal how the MFA approach and derived material flow indicators can be used for the evaluation of sustainability policies at municipality level.

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Acquisition practice prior to commercial use in the European Union
Published December 16, 2012
153-158

The target of 3% of GDP spent on R&D by the Lisbon priorities seems to be still far away from the reality in some European countries and at EU level as well. The economic crisis determined the priorities and it makes more complicated to dedicate more budget on Research and Development. New methods, new measures are needed in the European Un...ion. Measures that supporting the demand side of the innovation and generates market-pull affects. The Europe 2020 Innovation Union Flagship Initiative dedicates a special role to precommercial procurement for the upcoming 10 years. Nowadays, there are more and more European countries running pilot projects adapting the American SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) programme.

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The Role of Multimedia in General and Economic Vocational Training
Published September 15, 2003
81-83

The subject of my study is the methodological question of one of the topics of operation research as an application field of mathematics. The mathematics and operation research team of our institute aims to provide up to date knowledge to our students of both regular and distance education courses. Each topic has been allotted to a different te...acher, thus my responsibilities include Networks and their economic application, and my ambition is to achieve increasingly good results teaching this subject. The distance education course of our college provides the opportunity to try a wide range of methodological methods.

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Presentation of sales price reserves for live lamb
Published September 2, 2009
37-45

Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms  “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income. 

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Genetic diversity study of Hungarian honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies – Previous announcement
Published July 31, 2012
61-64

In Hungary, the Apismelliferacarnica is the native breed which is the only recognised and breedable honey bee in the country. It is assumed that there are a number of non-native and hybrid honey bee breeds in Hungary. The microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA surveys applied here will be utilised to easily and accurately identify the various spr...ads, and open up new ways in the research of honey bees. The isolation of the genomial DNS from 5 to 7 day old larvae samples was successfully carried out. In the future the plan is to carry out the measure with microsatellite markers. As an initial step the optimal annealing temperature was identified. In the mitochondrial DNA survey the COI-COII mytochonrial regional primer due to its low anneling temperature cannot be used with any normal sequencing methods. By using these method the aim of this research is the measurement of genetic variance.

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Contributions to the 2014 and 2015 flight pattern and damages of Carpomyia schineri Loew.
Published June 2, 2015
96-99

The fly Carpomyia schineri Loew is a pest of the berries of the feral Rosa canina group but is can also be found in the berries of grown rose cultivars. The larva damages the flesh of the berry, several larvae can develop inside a single berry. It can decrease the quantity and ascorbic acid content of the tea and jam, which are important human ...ascorbic acid sources during winter. At the same time in trapping experiments the adult can be confounded with adults of the walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa Cresson). In collections of berries at several sites in Hungary damage levels ranged from 0.88% to 65.08 %. Based on these damage levels we had the impression that the yellow sticky traps CSALOMON® PALz or PALs baited with the synthetic Rhagoletis lure caught moderate numbers of adults and were not satisfactory for detection, consequently improving trapping methods is necessary in the future.

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Result of Wine Consumption Survey
Published December 6, 2005
387-393

Wine has always played an important role in the Hungarian culture and gastronomy. Today, average wine consumption is about 33 liter per person per year, which figure, comparing with datas in Western Europe, is acceptable. However, cultured wine consumption has begun to develop only in last few years. Consumers, whose knowledges about wines have... been widening, demand quality wines. The number of high standard scientific contributions on this subject has risen greatly. But comparisons of them are rather difficult because of adopting different surveying methods. This research has supported and confirmed that wine is a confidental product and previous experience could be an important determining factor during wine-purchasing. Wine is popular as a present, so the nice, elegant look, proper bottles and labels are essential for the higher rate of selling. Further, price-value rate could also be a main factor during the customers’ decision. This survey is a result of a test-research and its methodolical experience will have been used in my following researches.

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The Poultry Industry through the Experts’ Eyes
Published September 22, 2004
39-42

In my study reveal the situation of the poultry industry. In my research, I used the regularly adopted qualitative method, i.e. the interview. I conversed with the managers of the most important poultry factories, and asked them about the position of the Hungarian poultry sector, the possibility of improving its position, the changes in consume...r behaviour, in marketing strategies, means and methods.
The managers talked about the necessity of collaborating between factories. They agreed on the dominance of commercial chains. In their opinion, these prejudice their chances. They emphasized about the increasing role of processed products and the growing number of sell-stimulated marketing means. The consumer behaviour has changed in the last 10 years too, which helps the market of processed poultry products.

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Effects of long-term K fertilization and liming on the extractable and exchangeable K contents of a Haplic Phaeosem soil
Published October 5, 2010
141-145

Effects of regular K fertilization and liming on the easily extractable K content of a Haplic phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl2
and AL (traditional method in Hungary) were examined in the B1740 type of the National Uniformed Long-Term Fertilization Experiments
at Karcag.
Close correlation (r=0.95) was found between the 0.01 M Ca...Cl2 and ammonium lactate - acetic acid (AL) extractable K contents of
soils.
K fertilization increased the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL extractable K significantly. Liming had different effects on the amounts of
K extracted by these two methods. Liming increased the amount of AL-K and decreased the amount of CaCl2-K. CaCl2 extractable K was in
close correlation with the relative amount of exchangeable K content of the soil (K%) and the agronomic K balance. The results of regression
analysis confirmed that the CaCl2-K characterized K% and the AL-K related to the absolute amount of exchangeable K.
On the basis of the presented results it can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to detect not just the increase of easily extractable K
caused by fertilization and liming but the changing of the rate of the relative amount of exchangeable K.

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Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
Published May 16, 2012
31-35

The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we ...examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

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