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  • Comparison of major population parameters of Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) in two hunting fields of the Great Hungarian Plain

    Hungarian stock of game is not only part of our national treasure but also one of our domestic products and economic income. Not indifferent therefore the number and the state of health of our wildlife. Population decline of the Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) (one of our most important small game in Hungary) takes a long time. Demographic parameters of Brown hare was examined, particularly the factors affecting the decline of the species in Hungary. We took samples from typical habitats where the Brown hare could be found in relatively high density in our country. The article reports data of reproductive characteristics, diseases, parasites of Brown hare and other factors such as climatic and anthropogenic which could influence of the population dynamics. We mention sample collection and processing methods eg: population size estimates, examination of reproductive organs, the sex ratio and the age structure as well as the individual condition based on data of domestic and foreign authors and our partial results.

  • Fresh fruit purchase analysis in the town’s circle in the Nothern Great Plain Region

    In my research I aimed to examine the previous theories about consumer habits and behaviors as well as the preference of different fruit species in the Northern Great Plain Region. Furthermore, I also wanted to know if there are any correlations between the product atributes that influence fruit consumption and different ages, genders and income categories.

    The importance of my research field is reflected in the fact that issues in connection with foodstuffs, healty diet and food safety have been highly emphasized recently.

    I belive in order to live longer we need to pursue healthy diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables. It seems, however, not every can follow this lifestyle in their every day diet since most people prefer junk food that contains harmful ingridients.

  • Economic issues of crop based ethanol production for energetic uses

    The United States Congress passed the “Clean Air Act” in 1990, which targeted the creation and use of so-called “green fuel”. This Act came into full force on January 7, 1995. Its essence is that an oxygen rich component is added to fuel by which it burns more cleanly and harmful emissions of vehicles are reduced by 25%. This oxygen rich component is basically ethanol and its ether ETBE, made of domestically produced grains.
    America’s traditional grain exporter status could be converted into a stabile income resource during production, many more valuable by-products – should this program succeed – are also produced, giving the opportunity for further utilisation either in the foods or form feeds industries, or as export products.
    Ethanol or ETBE production is also important to replace fuel imports from any specific country, the additive which is necessary for producing the fuel is the imported product MTBE.
    This programme therefore simultaneously assisted in environmental protection, agricultural and foreign trading issues as well as some market regulation issues. At the same time, based on grain production, it has an effect on the social strata by creating new jobs, especially in those areas which can be considered in recession due to the lack of any large-scale industrial cities.
    In the future, the European Union should carry out this project and it will affect Hungary, as well.

  • Analysis of Economic Efficiency of Energy Wood Plantations

    After the EU-accession we should have a definite idea about what kind of production structure and land use should Hungary obtain to meet the conditions undertaken in the different governmental decisions. In the course of Hungarian land use, significant changes have taken place in the last eighty years. Further changes are influenced by the fact that according to various decisions, legislative provisions and ideas in a short time the energy orchards’ domiciliation could start in large. For this, financial support can be required from EU-sources. As for the woody energy plants, subsidies can be required for the domiciliation and as for herbaceous plants grants can be required for growing. As far as the latter is concerned, the subsidy will be around 26-27 thousand Ft/hectares according to the plans. However, the cultivation method does not have to be changed to
    switch from plow-land to energy plants. The question is if the produced commodity will be received by power plants and if it ensures appropriate income for the farmer. In my research I wanted to find from the given woody energy plants which are those that are the most profitable.

  • The future of apple growing in the Northern Great Plain region

    We revealed and assessed those macroeconomic data which enabled us to identify the outstanding role of agriculture and within it that of fruit production. Based on this, it can be said that soil is the most important natural resource of Hungary. The appropriate combination of the additional resources required for production, labour and assets can provide a comparative advantage for the Northern Great Plain Region.
    The Northern Great Plain Region is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Hungary, so its development is a political objective. When analysing the economic sectors in the region, the important role of agriculture is obvious and it is also clear that the industry and the tertiary sector can only have an alternative income generating role in the future also. Therefore, it is important that the regional development funds of Hungary and the European Union are directly or indirectly aimed at improving agricultural development and competitiveness.

  • How can we determine the expected prices for lambs? – Analysis of the Hungarian and Italian lamb prices

    The Hungarian sheep sector has become a one-market sector, almost the whole amount of slaughter lamb went to Italy, which increased its defenselessness. In addition to the sole Italian market showing a permanent demand for Hungarian lambs, it would worth to exploit possibilities in other European markets considering the seasonal differences in Italian prices. Such markets can be the Spanish and Greek for ”light” and the French, German and English markets for ”heavy” lambs. Both the Italian and Hungarian prices have three major periods: Easter, Ferragusto and Christmas. Due to the changes in the prices, the producers often suffer great losses, therefore, the temporal adaptation of production, market research, technological and development activities need to be improved. It is important that the living of Hungarian sheep breeders should not be dependent solely upon the Italian market, distribution of products should be ensured in other markets too, so that the safety of sales be increased and higher prices and higher income could be achieved. The European lamb prices are characterized by large seasonal fluctuation and the degree and timing of changes are different in the different countries. Study of the literature and the results obtained in my study on lamb sales called for an analysis and study of the possibilities of price forecasting. In my study, I performed a forecasting of lamb prices in Hungary and Italy for the period between 1996 and 2006 based on the data of the European Committee. Among the forecasting methods, seasonal decomposition and SARIMA models are the most precise, producers can achieve a better market position by using these in the practice.

  • Methane emission from Matsuo rice paddy field in light of different fertilizers, costs, profit and carbon credit

    Nowadays global warming is a major issue to our environment. This issue is generated by the modern human activities like industry and intensive agriculture. This research is about methane emission from rice paddy fields. The aim of the study is to lower the methane emission from the field with the help of using different type of fertilizers, whilst we keep in focus the efficient economic operation. The main experimental field is Matsuo paddy field, (Matsuo town, Sanbu city, Chiba prefecture) which is analyzed by the Chiba University’s soil science laboratory, they provided the data for this study. During the study three type of fertilizer was analyzed which are all organic and the control was a regular chemical fertilizer. For all fertilizers the cost and income of the production were calculated and the profit was weighted with the methane emission what a specific fertilizer produced during the cultivation. In the future if the organic fertilizers are in focus than it is necessary to find a new material what can be competitive with the chemical fertilizers in focus of GHG emission or find an alternative way of the usage of methane in biogas production.

  • Connections of the Economic, Ecological-Environmental and Social Functions of Rural Development in Communities Bordering the Hortobágy

    investigated the economic, ecological-environmental and social functions of rural development in communities bordering the Hortobágy National Park, such as in Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek. My purposes focused on four issues: (1) to work out a method on the basis of the examined and cited literatures, which defines the development of communities from economic, ecological and social aspects of rural development; (2) to reflect the changes in the role of agriculture; (3) to analyse the effects, advantages and disadvantages of Hortobágy National Park in relation to the economic, ecological and social lives of the examined communities; and (4) to make an economic analysis on the alternative income sources of Hortobágy, such as rural tourism, herb production and bio-farming in a family farm structure. When measuring the development of the communities I concluded that complex indexes hide the real consideration of the three functions of rural development and the possibility for comparing them on a community level. Furthermore, these 19 indicators are not enough to evaluate the situation, thus I raised the number of indicators and handled them on the basis of the three functions of rural areas. I classified the economic, ecological and social indicators into indicator groups within each functions, which make the determination of causes for underdevelopment possible. While only Tiszacsege and Egyek were considered to be backward on the basis of the complex index of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, my investigations showed that even Balmazújváros and Hortobágy proved to be lagged behind from both economic and social aspects. The methodical development justified the hypothesis that few indicators are not enough to establish decisions objectively. New developmental orders emerged. Measuring development of communities may be all-rounded and more established by using this new method, which may result in objective preparation of decisions in rural development and more rational spreading of subsidies.

  • Using the principles of precision animal husbandry in fishbreeding

    Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodstuffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
    be planned well. 
    Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.

  • Analyzing the Population Retaining Ability and the Ability to Economically Provide for a Population in the Micro Region of Püspökladány

    According to the data of population density, 98% of Hungary’s territory has rural features. Gaining EU supports, in order to focus on developing the most underdeveloped communities, and in order to decrease – not to increase – the differences between communities, the establishment of priorities and determination of the rank of rural communities based on their development potential is necessary. The claim of measurability arises because of comparison and classification. A possibility or a target area of measuring is analysing population retaining and income producing capability of rural areas.
    To gain adequate, many-sided information about the development potentials of a given community, micro- or macro region, complex condition survey, as well as secondary information completed with empirical data and subjective value judgment is essential. The aim in every case is to gain experience of the present condition via determining the direction of change.
    In this study, I deal with the clarification of the definition of population retaining ability and the ability to economically provide for a population and introduce the most important results of the inquiry with questionnaires completed in the frame of an empirical survey.

  • Comparative analysis in residential property price level and price dynamics in urban and rural areas of Hajdú-Bihar County

    In modern market economies residential real estate prices, price shifts and their correlations with macroeconomic factors are surveyed quite frequently. However, in contrast with the wide scope of foreign examples, so far existing analyses in Hungary have ignored examining relation and extensity of macroeconomic indicators and failed to examine their effect on real estate pricing. The scope of this survey is to highlight these potential correlations and thus develop new aspects of analysis. Although the examination needs further extension both in time and space, the results of this survey may help to understand the importance of the responsible management of the most precious element of national wealth from the perspective of sustainable rural development.

    Based on my preliminary results, there exists a strong correlation between the number of inhabitants of a settlement and the average real estate prices. Nevertheless, the correlation seems to be significant only for cities. In the case of smaller settlements the correlation still exists but at a lower level. As opposed to the results of former publications and my own expectations, no direct link could be tackled between the amount of income tax paid by private individuals and real estate prices either in the cities or in the villages within the territory and time span examined in my analysis. Although this correlation is measurable on a macro-economic level, my micro-regional analyses revealed the complexity of asset pricing and price volatility. Continuing this survey, my goal is to identify the hidden factors influencing real estate prices, whose thorough mapping may promote conscious rural development.

  • Data supporting the quality of sheep milk for processing

    Although the volume of ingredients in ewe’s milk is substantially higher than in cow’s milk, its hygienic quality is lower. The weak quality of raw ewe’s milk limits the possibilities of processing and results in bad quality products. In our investigation we analysed the state of ewe’s milk processing at a typical medium size dairy firm. We investigated the collection, the amount and the quality of milk and the level of ingredients in milk throughout the purchasing period (lactation period).
    The purchasing of ewe’s milk was limited to 5 months (from April to September). Although meat (lamb) provides the major source of income to sheep breeders the extension of the period of ewe’s milk production can be beneficial to shepherds and dairy firms. The amount of ewe’s milk ingredients found corresponded to published findings. However, the hygienic quality of ewe’s milk was varied greatly in the different milk samples and these deviations meant bad quality on average. Physiological factors, the circumstances of sheep breeding and milking, the slow cooling of the milk, the little amount of daily milk and the long storage before transportation to the dairy firm together cause poor hygienic quality. The main problem is the long storage time of milk, but our results raise the question of reconsidering the quality classes. Investigating the effect of the hygienic quality of raw milk on product quality, we can get correct data that can be really authoritative.

  • Presentation of sales price reserves for live lamb

    Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The sector is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
    part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
    Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms  “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
    My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income. 

  • Agronomical and economic evaluation of different soil cultivation systems

    In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection, we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
    We examined the production costs in four different production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002:15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
    All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

  • Prospects of tobacco sector due to changing of union subsidy system

    Some 80% of the revenues from tobacco production originate from subsidies, therefore the existence of the tobacco industry basically depends on the system of subsidies. According to the current position, in the transitional period of introduction of the CAP reform (from 2006 to 2009) at least 40% of tobacco premiums shall be decoupled from the production, while the tobacco producing member states may decide to continue to pay the remaining 60% (or a less rate, depending on the rate of decoupling) in a coupled form. Tobacco premiums shall be fully decoupled as from the 2010 crop, however farmers will be eligible only for 50% of the subsidies, and the rest 50% shall be used for subsidising rural developments in tobacco producing regions (Radóczné, 2007).
    This change affects the section very seriously. In EU-15 member states this system was introduced in 2006, which resulted in giving up tobacco growing by high percentage of the farmers (70-80% reduction of tobacco production in Greece and Belgium, and 45% reduction in Portugal). In Hungary – due to the small scale of the tobacco section – this rate reduction in production would jeopardise the existence of the section, therefore we are interested in maintaining the existing system of coupled subsidies to as a large extent and for as long time as possible.
    This study shows the possibility of tobacco sector before and after introducing the changes in the system of subsidies, and formulates the most serious problems and roles of the sector.

  • Some strategic aspects of animal protein production

    The access to food shaped human societies and dietary models throughout the history of mankind. Animal protein consumption became a part of human culture. Data are presented showing the relationship of daily calorie and animal protein consumption as affected by capita GDP changes. Examples are presented how genetic improvement of animal and fodder plants influenced the resource efficiency and the overall environmental footprint per unit product. The two examples presented are: the dairy industry of the USA the 1944 and 2007 situation, and the Hungarian broiler chicken sector considering data relevant to 1930, 1960 and 2010. In both cases, dramatic improvements in resource efficiency could be demonstrated. The agricultural area required to animal feed production was reduced by more than 80% in both cases per unit product. Future possibilities are briefly discussed, referring to the still unutilized land reserves of the Globe, the new evolving technologies in progress inclusive the CASPR/Cas 9 genetic editing methods.

  • Name Brands and Symbols Used Organic Products in the European Union and in Hungary

    In 2002, the area which was monitored according to the requirements of organic farming numbered 103 thousand hectares in Hungary (this is some 1.7% of all cultivated land) and almost 1000 plants producing organic products were inspected. It is a realistic assumption, when considering these data, that within a short period time the area used for organic farming will reach the optimal 600.000 hectares.
    Contrary to overproduction in the EU – cereals, maize and other plants – organic products can be sold in unlimited quantities. Practice also indicates, that 90% of Hungarian certified organic products are sold in EU and Swiss markets.
    Thus, it is important to label Hungarian products according to EU standards. This way standard quality products can be sold easier and by increasing their income, manufacturers can contribute to the improvement of the environment.

  • Evaluation of the factors determining the profit of lamb fattening

    Lamb fattening in the past 8 years was generally a loss-making business and it was worth selling only in two weight categories – at 24-27 kg and at 27-30 kg –, because in this categories a modest profit could be achieved in most of the years. Selling lambs at 20-24 kg-weight provides a proper income for the sheep farmers only if the milking period is prolonged. If the lambs are weaned at a weight of 16-20 kg, then they are not worth selling them in this weight category. The profit of fattening ram lambs is higher and safer than that of ewe lambs. In Hungary, the profitability of lamb fattening is insecure due to the large variability in purchase prices and the instability of the market. When studying the profitability of the two genders combined, it can be stated that the summer fattening period was the most profitable, while if only the rams are considered then the profitability of the autumn and spring periods was the highest, which is due to Easter and Christmas lambs. Based on our results, we came to the conclusion that ewe lambs and rams should be sold at a lower and higher weight category, respectively.

  • Fish consumption of the great cormorant in the area of Hortobágy Fish Farm

    The cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) is a bird species that nests sporadically but in colonies, besides larger fishponds and rivers in Hungary. The number of its individuals has been increasing during the last two decades. The species eats solely fish, therefore it can cause serious depredation of the fish stocks in fishponds of intensive system and after the freezing of the ponds, in larger rivers, which are not yet frozen. The aim of our research is to reveal the damages the birds can cause on the studied areas and the extent of the losses the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co. has to realize.

    Our studies were carried out between April 2012 and November 2013. During cleaning, the investigation of the crop contents of the birds and their biometric studies were conducted. The results revealed the diverse nutrition base of the species. In the samples, we have determined 300 identified fish individuals; in 289 cases, the exact fish species were determined, too. Although statistical differences were found between the given pond unit and the consuming of the corresponding fish species (P=0.05% beside), this cannot be considered as absolutely certain.

    Our investigation is of considerable significance in terms of nature preservation and not least, it has substantial financial concerns too. Under the ever harder fish production conditions, the presence and thus the permanent nutrition of the bird affect the fishermen. In favour of the maintaining of the natural ecological balance and the income of the fishers, the elaboration of adequate protective and efficient preventive processes will be necessary in the near future.

  • Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization

    The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

    Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

  • Examining the competitiveness of the Great Plain region through a few basic indicators

    There are significant differences in the level of economic development and social relations between the various regions of Hungary, consequently, their competitiveness is also dissimilar. The term ’competitiveness’ has recently gained a regional meaning from various aspects. The unified interpretation of ’competitiveness’ is applicable to all basic units of the economy in a flexible way, and is therefore applicable on regional level as well. Regional competitiveness is measured against four economic categories: regional income per capita, work efficiency, employment rate and age composition. In addition to an overview of the region, this study will analyse the above components of regional competitiveness based on data describing the region.

  • Regional economic achievements and reindustrialisation in Hajdú-Bihar county

    The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
    The structure of GDP per capita of the county is different than the country average mainly because of the high proportion of agriculture.
    The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
    The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
    The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
    The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
    The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.

  • Current Conditions and Opportunities of Biofarming in Hungary

    The aim of organic farming is not to maximize income, but to achieve optimal product quality. It is completed by the tightest possible material, and energy flow within the farm. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it works with nature to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Total independence of external resources can not be achieved in Hungary due to the small-scale of organic animal husbandry. Some materials in limited quantities can be purchased from external resources, though the group of these materials is strictly regulated. Organic farming harmonizes with the concept of European multifunctional agriculture, because besides farming, it includes social considerations, as it helps to maintain natural resources and the relationship between people and their environment, and provides a living for those living in the region.
    As regards organic farming the fertility of the soil and the health of vegetation can be influenced in various ways. Farmers have to be highly skilled and able to manage a farm with great expertise. Generally it can be stated that as the use of non-organically produced products is limited, the opportunities to correct failures made by the farmer are minimal, contrary to conventional farming. Farmers must be intent on developing the tightest material- and energy flow. This means that organic farms ideally have both animal husbandry and crop production. This energy and skill demanding system of farming is compensated by state subsidies, growing market share and relatively high prices for organic products.

  • Examination of the sub-regions in the North Great Plain Region

    Before Hungary joined the European Union – in order to gain access to the sources of Structural Funds and to create the expected regional information service – a build up of five-level territorial system was indispensable. Both in the EU and in Hungary, there are significant differences among regions. The aim of regional policy is to reduce differences regarding development and living standards, in order to guarantee a reasonable living standard and income for every region’s inhabitants in the EU.
    In Hungary, during the last decade, the effects of regional difference grew. While the advantage of the leading capital and its agglomeration and the eastern and western parts of Transdanubia was growing, meanwhile the most undeveloped areas' rates of development remained under the mean. The underdeveloped areas are in the northeastern part and in Southern Transdanubia. The developmental differences lead to such great social asymmetries, that these simply beg for remedying.
    In this study, I would like to present the sub-regions of the North Great Plain Region and uncover the possible reasons of the developmental differences.

  • Recent data about the fish consumption of great Cormorant in the area of Hortobágy Fish Farm Co

    The cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) is a bird species that nests sporadically but in colonies, besides larger fishponds and rivers in Hungary. The number of its individuals has been increasing during the last two decades. The species eats solely fish, therefore it can cause serious depredation of the fish stocks in fishponds of intensive system and after the freezing of the ponds, in larger rivers, which are not yet frozen. The aim of our research was to reveal the damages the birds can cause on the studied areas and the extent of the losses the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co. has to realize.

    Our studies were carried out between April 2012 and November 2014. During cleaning, the investigation of the craw contents of the birds and their biometric studies were conducted. The results revealed the diverse food base of the species. In the samples, we have determined 379 fish individuals; in 368 cases, the exact fish species were determined, too. Significant differences were found between the consumed fish species rations of the units (P=0.05% beside). We have also found significant difference in the fish consumptions of adult males and females.

    Under the ever harder fish production conditions, the presence and thus the permanent predation of the birds affect the fishermen. In favour of maintaining ecological balance as well as to hold the income of the fish farmers, elaboration of adequate protective and preventive methods will be needed in near future.