No 46 (2012)

Published May 16, 2012

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Articles

Changes in toxic elements content of soil after sewage sludge treatment in energy willow plantation
7-10

The primary purpose of our experiment was the solution of municipal excess sludge treatment by a renewable energy resource used willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantation. Tests were carried out to state whether the applied sewage sludge has caused any accumulation of the toxic elements in the studied soil layers, and - based on the results –to s...ee whether the plantation is suitable for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
The excess sludge (sludge before dewatering) is beneficial for the willow, because it contains a 3–5% dry matter and therefore, a lot of water, too. This high water content ensures the high water amount needed for the intensive growth of the willow. On the other hand, the wastewater treatment plant can save the dewatering cost which corresponds to about 30% of the water treatment process costs. The amounts of the sprinkled sewage sludge were calculated on the basis of its total nitrogen content. Treatments were the followings: control, 170 N kg ha-1 year-1 and 250 N kg ha-1 year-1. The mean values of the toxic element concentrations in the sewage sludge did not cross the permitted limits of the land  accommodating.

The measured toxic element values of the soil were compared to the limits of the 50/2001. (IV.3.) Government Regulation.The  sprinkled sewage sludge on the bases of the total N content did not cause accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and the treated plants were also healthy without any signs of toxicity. 

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Comparative analysis of maize hybrides grown for bioethanol production purposes
11-14

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crop year on the main components of maize grown for bio-ethanol production yield, starch content and starch yield per hectare of maize hybrids were investigated in a droughty (2007) and in a favourable years with optimal weather conditions (2008, 2009). We measured very low starch yield... (1.5 t ha-1) in the year with unfavourable precipitation supply (2007) together with higher starch content (73%). In the case of good precipitation supply we measured a much higher starch yield per hectare (7.7 t ha-1) with lower content (72.4%). In 2009 the starch content (74.5%) exceed the results of the two previous years, but on the other hand the average of starch yield was (4.9 t ha-1) which falls between the other two years values.

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Regionalism in the organisation of traffic in Hungary
15-19

In the member states of the European Union, especially in Germany and Austria, regionalism has a growing importance by the organising of public services. At the field of public transport services the regional organising methods will be realised through the establishment of public transport associations in interest of coordinating the local, sub...urban and regional public transport interests. In the period since the 90’s there are a not a lot of best practices regarding the regional organisation of public transport services in Hungary. The study goals to present the position of the local and regional interest in the public transport organisation in Hungary, and deals with the reason the lack of best practices also.

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Renewal of the city network in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg country after the political restructuring
21-25

After World War I., but especially from the second half of the 20th century the public policy development is determinative in urban development. The urban and the country planning appears under the auspices of the regional development policy between the world wars. After 1945 the primary goal in economic and development policy was the socialist... industrialization, with a priority on cities. In this period the driving force in urban development primarily were the industrial installations. As a result, economic and social structure was transformed. It is a fact, that planned economy gave a huge impulse to city network, which determine the trend of cities up to this day. After the regime change, as an effect of escalation of regional differences and as a result of economic processes the urban development took new directions. The state intervention changed, and the principles of decentralization prevailed in resource allocation. The private and non-profit sector appears in urban development, the governments gain more important roles. These three sectors became the movers of local development. To recognize the main trends of urban development in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, the local area development funds were examined in a special way in a given period. This study will show, the main tendencies of the consumption of decentralized regional development funds between 1996–2008, in the cities of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. This study also gives an answer for which factors convert the renewal of city network of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County after the regime change.

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Identification and biological examination of some inland Monilinia species
27-29

The aim of this study was to identify and biologically analyse some Monilinia species from Hungary. 146 M. fructigena and 28 M. laxa species out 174 infectious fruit from all over the country were used for the study. For further study 10 isolates were used and apple fruit was inoculated with them according to Koch postulate. 1–2 mm ochre exog...en stromas were observbed on infectious plant parts and growing signs on culture of all isolates were identical to M. fructigena. To affirm classical identification, isolates with molecular biological method were also prepared using PCR reaction. Control isolates of M. laxa, M. fructigena and M. fructicola were used. The size of PCR product showed that all isolates had a 415 bp band which was typical of  M. fructigena. Results support the previous observation that M. fructigena and M. laxa species occure all over Hungary.

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Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
31-35

The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we ...examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

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Development of LEADER in Hungary
37-40

The development of the Hungarian LEADER programme was organised by the Institute of Rural development, Training and Consultancy under the control of the Ministry of Rural Development. Starting the programme without earlier experiences, lead to problems, but these were solved by the efficient work of the organizing institutions. The changing Eur...opean economical situation makes it necessary to review and update the Local Development Strategies along with opening the programme again. This makes the programme work more effectively with every new turn. Continusing LEADER in Hungary after 2013, by using the hungarian and Western European knowledge, can bring economical and social benefits for rural areas and for the whole nation as well.

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New color variations highlight Park sage (Salvia nemorosa L.) and characterization
41-44

The negative effects of climate change on ornamental plants are also becoming more serious harm. In the current planting display appearing ornamental species and vareities needed in addition to the domestic well-changeable climate-tolerant plantspecies is involved. A natural populations of Sage Park is still unknown to us color- and shape varia...tions are hidden. Plants of the natural vegetation collected from these clones formed three major evaluation of the color version with a temporary color variations have appeared. The axial length of inflorescens, color and brevity of the flowers were also significant differences. The botanists have not been tested by the sepal and bract from top to bottom and may vary. In 2011, the shoots are planted in field breading methods to perform an additional option.

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Special landscape values of the settlements in “Érmelléki löszös hát” geographical micro region
45-50

The objective of this study is to present the concept and significance of special landscape values. The research explains special landscape values within landscape protection using Hungarian scientific literature as well as international and national law. In the last decades the measurement and conservation of non-protected landscapes and lands...cape elements were emphasised by landscape protection. One of the biggest research of the last years was TÉKA project, done by Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Landscape Architecture. The program dealt with surveying Hungarian landscape values. In this paper I am going to analyse the types of special landscape values and their frequencies on a plain region using an open database prepared by TÉKA program. In addition to the definition of special landscape values in the Érmellék loess ridge geographical micro region the study intends to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of using the database.

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Alternatives of the multiple use of Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby) as a shrub-replacing mallow in the temperate climate zone
51-56

In the seventies of the previous century, Dr. Zoltán Kováts set two directions in the research of mallows. One of the directions was the biotechnology of the mallow species and the other direction is using the mallow species as biomass material. In order to do this he brought mallow mother spawns of ornamental and biomass sorts from botanical... gardens abroad and tested many of them, including the a Sida hermaphrodita kind. Fourty years later, for the second time this plant, known as the „energy mallow” got back to Hungary again, right into the sight of hungarian biomass business with the help of László Balogh and his associates using help from Poland. This genus got into the center of our research, because of it’s valuable attributes. The latest experiments are about using it as an energy plant, without examining genetic details. The plant grows up to more
than 3 meters, has high growing rate and produces big amount of green mass. We don’t have any hungarian data about whether the plant continues the sufficient growing rate or not, after cutting it back.
We have to explore the potentials in the Sida’s sublimation. The plant is mostly suitable for ornamental and energy utilization, so further sublimation should be aiming for these aspects. During my research period, we are willing to get to know these potentials and the best possible use of them.

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Connections between the roma segregation processes and home circumstances in the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény
57-61

In order to analyze the social status of local gipsies – both inside the community and among themselves – we conducted an empirical research of 300 participants, in which we took the distinctive spatioand sociostructural features of Hajdúböszörmény into consideration. Furthermore, a second research was also carried out in which we quest...ioned 25 prominent persons. Participants were selected in a way that the study may give a realistic picture of each of the segregated areas of the town (focusing on social, educational and realty issues), thus besides questioning professionals dealing with the concern of gipsies on a daily basis, we decided to involve representatives of the local government as well. The reports concerning the realty status of the segregated areas were supplemented with further material provided by the local government.

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Defining agricultural cluster’s conceptual framework with Delphi technique
63-66

The cluster concept is well defined in the literature, but its agricultural adaptation has not been detailed. A method is needed, which involves 
experts into the study, who are able to confirm that the modell is correct and help to define the conceptual gaps. The Delphi technique is suitable
for the task. This is a well-structure, i...terative future foresight technique, based on experts opinion about the research topic. The method leads to consensus by all means, but it also can have a negative outcome of the researcher's point of view, that's why we have to formulate scenarios.
The aim is not statistically significant result, but to build in new ideas into the modell with brainstorming.

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Examination of renewable energy sources and their endowments
67-70

Due to the exhaustion of fossile fuel reserves, the increase of their prices on the world market and the environmental pollution resulting from their use make alternative energy sources increasingly important. In my study, I am going to present the currently known and researched renewable energy sources. Based on the results achieved from the S...WOT analysis, I provide an overview on the future opportunities of their use. After the comprehensive examination of alternative energy sources, I give insight into the factors which influence the energetic use and utilisation of biomass, as well as the theoretical background of bioenergy. In my work, I pay particular attention to the analysis of the use of biomass as an energy source, as well as the difficulties related to its utilisation.

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Implementation alterantives of the CIVAQUA complex water management program in the Debrecen region
71-73

Hungary is one of the countries in Europe which has the largest amount of water supply because of its geographical conditions. Water comes from the surrounding mountains makes this water supply even more bigger. This precious water base needs to be treated responsibly and the most efficient way. The Civaqua program is a project with the above-m...entioned conditions, made by the Local Government of Debrecen and the Water Directory of Trans-Tiszanian Region. This project deals with the exploitation of the East-Main Chanel’s water for social welfare, agricultural and inverimental protection purposes in Debrecen and its agglomeration. The aim of this paper is to give an overall insight into the investment plans of Civaqua program and it is also examines its positive direct and indirect effects on the region.

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Horticulture applicability of 3D laser scanner
75-78

As a result of the technological development, remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of life (from precision agriculture through architecture to medicine). Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments the 3D laser scanner is overriding importance. The horticulture applicability of terrest...rial laser scanning technique is innovation in the precision agriculture, because it could be determine the structure of trees and branches, the canopy extension, which can help to recognize some biophysical parameters. The examination was carried out with Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. In this article I present the measuring principle, the parameters and horticulture applicability of the terrestrial laser scanner.

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Delay of flowering in orchards
79-81

The goal of my research was to find out how cooling sprays affect the onset of flowering and the microclimate int he fruit orchards.
Frequent spraying (every 20 minutes) can keep the temperature of trees and buds lower.As a result the onset of flowering occured several
days later in the sprayed trees. It was proven that cooling sprays are... suitable for delaying the onset of flowering under the domestic climatic conditions. This procedure can significantly mitigate the risk of frost damage and can improve crop safety.

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Alternatives of sewage sludge use in the crop production
83-87

The produced plants reduce the greenhouse effect because they fix CO2 that contributes to the causing of the greenhouse effect with about 50%. The production of fertilizers is not only a costly process but it needs a considerable energy at the same time. Nowadays, the reduction of the proportion of the fertilizer is significant. One ...of the reasons of this is that during the production such by-products are produced in a big quantity in which the necessary vegetal nutrients can be found in a considerable measure these enrich the organic matter of soil. The latter is essential condition for the microorganisms in the soil, without which the sustainable plant cultivation can not be achieved. Besides high prices of artificial fertilizers the utilization of the wastes is economically justified. Finally the other reason for the reduction of a usage of artificial fertilizer is that the wrong use of the fertilizer may cause environmental pollutions. I examined the cultivation application of the sewage sludge in laboratory circumstances during my work.

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Effect of plant extract against opportunist human pathogen soil bacteria
89-93

Our experiments have repeatedly shown that the extract of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an antifungal and antibacterial component.
In our paper we tested of the biological activity of the herbal substance against opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria strains (Staphylococcus
aureus 110003 and 25923; Staphylococcus saprophyticus 11...0008). Our laboratory tests show that the extract is bacteriostatic and in several cases bactericid. We can assume that from the the agricultural and public health aspects can be extremely dangerous weed, contains biologically active components and it may be suitable for the prepare of antibacterial agents.

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Opportunities of delineating inland waters and soil moisture with remote sensed data
95-98

The methodology for delineating water bodies on multispectral remote sensing imagery was examined and evaluated. A supervised approach is tested with the aim to accurately detect inland water, moisturised soil surface and swampy patches on the Landsat TM 7 scene. The goal of this research is to investigate whether the application of remote sens...ing image interpretation could further refine the possibilities of future soil conductivity measurement research. The methodologies used were the application of supervised classification algorithms based on the training data collected in the area. The achieved overall classification accuracy value of 83.0795% suggests that the methodology could be used as a successful strategy to incorporate remote sensing data interpretation into soil conductivity measurement planning and application. The main conclusion that can be drawn is that processing of multispectral data with further refinement of the presented methodologies can led to very useful outcomes for environmental measurements.

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Experiences of organizing the social institutions into non-profit companies in Hajdú-Bihar county
99-102

The study attempts to find solutions for relieving the major serious economic and social problems which are resulted partly by the economic crisis, mainly by demographic processes ( decrease of population, declining economic activity, ageing) and which occur all over Europe. In 2007, in Hungary, the Local Government of Hajdú-Bihar county start...ed to reform the social institutions sytems in a unique way in the interest of operating these systems economically. The experiences, gained after the conversion, show that the companies as social institutions maintainers are able to work properly more efficiently, with less government support while they meet the professional requirements, and the management who does the control is competent
and innovative. 

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Comparative study of regional airports for summing up the competitiveness of Debrecen Airport
103-106

The Debrecen International Airport in commercial means might be the eastern gate of the European Union. This statement is in question these days .In the neighbouring countries like Slovakia, and Romania the old commercial airports have came through major renovation, and technical improvement. With Romania joining to the Schengen Agreement, Debr...ecen is going to lose its comparative advantage. So, it is time to follow up what has remained from the five years ago still existing technical and commercial priority of Debrecen aerodrome. In this study looking through the technical background of Kosice, Arad, Cluj-Napoca, Targu-Mures, Oradea, Baia-Mare, Satu-Mare, and Debrecen international airports we have found that Satu-Mare, Arad, and Targu-Mures might be major competitors af Debrecen airport. The level of installed technology has exceeded the one in Debrecen in case of Targu-Mures, and Arad. The situation is the same in Kosice which the absolute market leader in the region.

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