Approaches based on the daily rhythm of apple flowers provide a new stage in nectar research, where the synchronous functioning of sexual organs is studied. In the flower biological studies the insect attraction of flowers was also studied. The two most important factors of insect attraction are the pollen- and nectar production of the flowers.
... From 1993 to 1998 we studied the food, that flower had to offer for the pollinating insects at different times of the day.
Studies were carried out on 'Idared', one of the hybrids of 'Jonathan' apple cultivar. The fruit of 'Idared' is bigger than the fruit of `Jonathan'. It is bright red, transportable, has a bigger productivity and is not subject to Jonathan-spots. Concerning its inner characteristics, it is juicy, the flesh consistency is better than that of 'Jonathan', but its acid/sugar ratio is worse (Sansavini et al. 1981).
In a two-year Hungarian study, spore dispersal diurnal periodicity and viability of Monilinia spp. and their relation to weather components were determined in an organic apple orchard. Conidia of Monilinia spp. were first trapped in late May in both years. Low number of conidia were trapped until end-June. Thereafter, number of conidia continuo
...usly increased until harvest. Conidia in a 24-h period showed diurnal periodicity pattern, with th highest concentration in the afternoon hours. Spore viability with FDA staining showed that viability of conidia ranged from 45 to 70% with showing lower viability in the dry than in the wet days in both years. Temperature and relative humidity correlated positively with mean hourly conidia numbers in both years. Mean hourly rainfall was negatively but poorly correlated with conidiacatches in both years. Results were compared and discussed with previous observations.