The main goal of our paper is to evaluate the economic performance of processing industry and its significance within food industry, furthermore to define economic weight of processed goods made of nuts and berries. Fruit and vegetable processing industry plays a key role in Hungarian food industry: it provides 10% of its production value and r...evenue, its export is outstanding and its export-import balance was positive in the last 15 years. Purchase of berries has been continuously reduced in the processing industry, mostly raspberry and blackberry decreased. Nut products is and important group; their revenue was 12% of the industry’s revenue in 2012. Processed goods made of nuts and berries are high added value products, while the purchased quantity is small, the value of finished products is high, especially in case of nuts.
Among diseases that affect walnut, bacterial blight is considered the most important one in all walnut growing areas both from Hungary and Romania. For the determination of susceptibility/resistance of walnut cultivars in our posterior work planned, 61 bacterial isolates were collected from walnuts showing symptoms of blight, with the purpose o...f isolating Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj). The characteristic Xaj colonies, frequently present as saprophytes in the infected plant tissues, were separated from other bacteria according to their morphology, yellow colour, hydrolysis of starch, and oxidation of glucose. All isolates were tested for pathogenicity by hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L.), bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris L) and unripe nuts (Juglans regia L.). Determination of taxonomy of the selected isolates denotes a possible subdivision (races, biotypes) of Xaj occurring in different geographical areas, API 20NE and API 50CH kits were used. Hungarian and Romanian strains showed a high degree of similarity of carbohydrate utilization but slightly differed from the type strain. All were Cu-sensitive.
The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. The detailed goals were mapping and analyzing of physical properties of the soil in water management point of view, mapping the acidity and Ca...CO3content of soil for precision liming, measurement of humus the element content. Sites with different physical characteristics (from sandy loam to loamy clay) could be distinguished. The reason for this is that besides the possible increase of clayminerals, the increasing rate of colloidal humus content contributes to larger soil plasticity. Statistics also proved positive and strong correlation (r=0.822) between the soil plasticity and humus content. In the case of pH, only a small part of the orchard is has to be limed, since most of the orchard has neutral pH, which is advantageous for nuts and stone fruits. It has to be mentioned, that the CaCO3 supply is also appropriate for the stone fruits. Based on the results hyperspectral imagery can be a good solution for detecting calciferous soils, although these measurements are still need validation.
Response of “Badamy sefid” Pistachio trees to spraying of fertilizer was studied over two years (2006–2007). The boron and zinc fertilizer were used just on swelling time of female flower bud in compare to no fertilization (control). Also nutritional solution combined of nitrogen (400 ppm), phosphorus (P2O5) (380 ppm), potasium (K2O) (520... ppm), Fe (5 ppm), Cu (2 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Mn (2 ppm) in 1000 liter water per hectare sprayed at first week of May, third week of June and July). The concentration of some macro and micro elements in flower bud and in leaves, also productivity (g/shoot sectional area) mean nut weight, fresh weight of nut per cm2 branch cross sectional area, blanks nuts %, non-split nut %, new shoot growth length after cessation of growth and remained flower bud (%) at the next spring were recorded for the different treatments. The results showed that boron and zinc concentration increased in the bud of sprayed trees in compare to control. Application of nutritional solution decreased the flower bud abscission, also resulted in increased vegetative growth, nut weight, and productivity of trees. In conclusion, spraying of fertilizers in the suitable time to the pistachio trees might be a useful method in decreasing flower bud abscission and mitigating the alternate bearing.
The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings...are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.