A study was carried out to analyse the individual and combined effects of heavy metal toxicity and high irradiance on the photosynthetic characteristics of young, fully expanded leaves of palm seedling Trachycarpus fortunei under laboratory conditions. Heavy metals were found to inhibit both the light and dark reactions of photosynthes...is and the inhibition was more affected in the light than in the dark. Single photoinhibitory conditions caused a 60 % decrease in the electron transport activity after 120 min of light exposure which was completely reversible in the dark. In contrast, the combined effect of high light and heavy metal treatment resulted in a 90 % decrease in the activity, but no reversible recovery in the dark could be detected. This indicated that the simultaneous effect of these two stress factors led to irreversible damages of the photosynthetic machinery and as a consequence caused the general destruction of the plant.
Abbreviations and symbols: Fo: initial chlorophyll fluorescence; Fm: maximum total fluorescence; Fv: variable fluorescence; AFi: intermediate level of fluorescence induction; PSII: photosystem 2.
Nowadays airborne remote sensing data are increasingly used in precision agriculture. The fast space-time dependent localization of stresses in orchards, which allows for a more efficient application of horticultural technologies, could lead to improved sustainable precise management. The disadvantage of the near field multi and hyper spectrosc...opy is the spot sample taking, which can apply independently only for experimental survey in plantations. The traditional satellite images is optionally suitable for precision investigation because of the low spectral and ground resolution on field condition. The presented airborne hyperspectral image spectroscopy reduces above mentioned disadvantages and at the same time provides newer analyzing possibility to the user. In this paper we demonstrate the conditions of data base collection and some informative examination possibility. The estimating of the board band vegetation indices calculated from reflectance is well known in practice of the biomass stress examinations. In this method the N-dimension spectral data cube enables to calculate numerous special narrow band indexes and to evaluate maps. This paper aims at investigating the applied hyperspectral analysis for fruit tree stress detection. In our study, hyperspectral data were collected by an AISADUAL hyperspectral image spectroscopy system, with high (0,5-1,5 m) ground resolution. The research focused on determining of leaves condition in different fruit plantations in the peach orchard near Siófok. Moreover the spectral reflectance analyses could provide more information about plant condition due to changes in the absorption of incident light in the visible and near infrared range of the spectrum.
The specific conditions of the formation of three different types of sunburn (sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis, and photooxidative sunburn) have been recently characterized on apple fruit. However, no information is still available on leaf damage. Therefore, the aims of this study were i) to extend the knowledge on fruit damage, ii) character...ize leaf damage and iii) find relationship between fruit and leaf damage. The observations were made on 586 apple accessions in a gene bank orchard located in Hungary. The incidence of the three different types of fruit symptoms were recorded and based on the visual symptoms, two different types of leaf sunburn (sunburn yellowing and sunburn necrosis) were characterized. The most frequent type of fruit sunburn observed was sunburn browning. Photooxidative sunburn was found for less number of accessions, and only some accessions were affected by sunburn necrosis. Fruit were far more susceptible than leaves; (>60%) of the examined accessions were affected by fruit damage and (<3%) by leaf damage. Although a large number of accessions were affected, the percentage of fruit damaged within accessions was not that excessive; ~6% of the fruit assessed showed the symptoms of sunburn browning. Significantly fewer fruit were damaged by sunburn necrosis (~1%) or photooxidative sunburn (~1.4%) than sunburn browning. The percentage of leaves damaged within accessions were simlarly very low (~1%). Close relationship between fruit and leaf damage was found. Accesions with relatively heavily sunburned leaves usually had severe fruit damage as well. Leaves showing sunburn symptoms were usually closely located around those fruit which were sunburned severely. Leaf damage of sunburn was found on spur leaves in a great majority of the accessions damaged, shoot leaves did not seem to be susceptible to sunburn.
Many methods and techniques have been introduced for measuring alterations in the fruit and in its surrounding environment related to sunburn incidence. The research objectives, fruit materials and the environment to be evaluated dictate the methods to follow. These procedures are either non-destructive and involve techniques that allow us to t...rack the course of sunburn development and related environmental parameters, or destructive and involve the removal of fruit from the tree for field/laboratory measurements. Techniques employed can be used for pre-symptomatic monitoring (before symptoms become visible) or characterizing the symptoms already present. The principles behind the measurements and their usefulness for sunburn assessments are discussed and critically evaluated in this review paper. Descriptions and evaluations of the methods and techniques were made in the following groups: 1. Thermal measurements; 2. Visual assessments; 3. Fruit quality measurements; 4. Measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations; and 5. Practical evaluation of sunburn damage. Thermal measurements involve methods tracking the ambient temperature and fruit surface temperature, and their relation to sunburn formation. Visual assessments cover all measuring techniques (skin color, chlorophyll fluorescence, radiation reflection, electron microscopy) that are able to detect changes on/in the fruit skin related to sunburn formation. Fruit quality measurements are used to point out differences in qualities (soluble solids, firmness, titratable acidity, and water content) between unaffected and sunburned areas of the fruit. The measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations (gas exchange, pigment analysis, enzyme activity, gene expression) give us a better insight to the mechanism of sunburn formation. Practical evaluations involve many procedures that are used by scientists to characterize the susceptibility of cultivars, evaluate protection technology, etc. For this purpose, the following methods are in use: expressing the percentage of the total fruit surface area affected by sunburn or the percentage of the total number of fruits damaged on the tree, or even a scale based on the severity of the symptoms occurred. All assessing methods and techniques described here have their pros and cons as well as their specific applicability, therefore any of these cannot be favored to use exclusively for assessing sunburn incidence. The combination of these techniques will be the best choice to meet a given research objective perfectly.
Plants obtained from in vitro culture can show increased susceptibility to environmental stress conditions. In the process of their adaptation to natural conditions it requires monitoring of their physiological state. The methods used to check this phenomenon should estimate quickly and exactly the tolerance to suboptimal environmental... factors. Such requirements are satisfied by the methods of measuring chlorophyll luminescence in vivo, e.g. fluorescence induction and delayed luminescence. The objects of our studies were cucumber plants regenerated from cultures of callus and embryogenic cell suspension, as well as the plants obtained from seeds. The plants derived from in vitro cultures displayed a poor physiological condition at the early phase of adaptation characterised by higher susceptibility both to stress caused by increased density of the light flux and low temperature (4 °C) in comparison with the plants obtained from seeds.