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Effects of integrated and ecological growing technologies on the growth and development of fruiting structures in new apple plantations
31-33.

On the Horticultural Station of the Debrecen University, Pallag, two year old apple plantations of two varieties (‘Pinova’, ‘Golden Reinders’) have been studied, in autumn 2011. The growth of the cross section area of the trunk and the central axis were measured and compared to evaluate the effect of two alternative growing technologies: integrated and/or ecological. ‘Pinova’ proved to grow more intensely than ‘Golden Reinders’ independently from the growing technology. The effect of the technology, however, was expressed in ‘Pinova’, where the integrated technology produced more vigorous growth than the ecological one. The effect of varieties on growing intensity was more distinct than the effect of growing technologies. Under the ecological growing system, the difference between the varieties studied is more accentuated regarding growing intensity. By that reason, in ecological growing plantations of varieties with moderate vigour ought to be stimulated by all possible techniques (as pruning, nutrition etc.).

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Flower production of apple varieties grown by different environmental technologies
47-49.

The flower production of four apple varieties have been observed grown in integrated and in ecological growing technologies during the spring of 2010. The trees produced in the last year (2009) nearly similar yields, so the effect of the technologies may causen differences in the production of flowers. According to our results, the ecological technology produced higher flower densities in the majority of variables, which was in relation with the vigor, branching and thickening of the trunks. The varieties observed displayed substantial differences in the appearance of fruiting structures of different age on the branches. This information may prove to be essential for the decisions to be made in timing and severity at the pruning operations.

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Comparison of frost damages in apple plantations cultivated with environmental friendly growing technology
21-24.

The global changes in climate and meteorological conditions have many negative consequences, which may diminished with adequate measures. In our continental climate, the winter frosts but also the late spring frosts are always threatening. There are technologies to avoid late frost damages (with spray irrigation or with smoking), but against winter minima, we are nearly helpless. The different damages experienced recently called our attention on the question of optimal condition, which is a delicate balance between the vegetative activity and the provision of nutrients. The excesses on both ends are increasing the danger of damages (Zatykó, 1980). Our examination was performed in the plantation, which was cultivated according to ecological and integrated technologies. The variable condition of the trees gave opportunity to evaluate the effects of cold temperatures as frost damages. Our results will represent not only the differences between varieties but also the effects of the growing technologies – which influence the condition of the plants – consequently, the measure of frost damages.

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Maceration affects mineral composition and pH of wines
25-29.

Mineral composition of wines is affected by many ecological and technological factors. These variables are mostly discussed focusing on certification of origin and human health. This paper gives data on possible changes in mineral composition and pH of wines due to 4 hours skin maceration (1st trial) and fermentation sur marc (2nd trial). Experimental site is situated on acidic sandy soil in middle east Hungary. The variety collection was established in 2003 with own rooted planting material in 3x1 m spacing, trained for single curtain training
system. Mineral composition of wines was determined with ThermoFischer Scientific iCAP 6300 ICP-OES, pH was measured with pH10pen (VWR International) in field, and with SevenEasyTM pH meter (Mettler Toledo) in laboratory. 1st trial with 9 PIWI white wine grape varieties pointed to demonstrate effects of skin maceration, which is abundantly used to elevate aroma content. 2nd trial with the use of ‘Medina’ red PIWI grape variety aimed to demonstrate effects of double pasta skin maceration in rose and red wine technology. Data of 1st trial show, that K, Cu, Mn and P respective increase with skin maceration, despite Fe show considerable decrease. Data of 2nd trial show, that K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and B increase with longer skin contact and higher fermentation temperature, despite Fe and Ba decrease with this technology. In regard to pH, data show, that skin maceration and fermentation sur marc increase K content with about 30-70% respectively, withstanding that pH also increase with a considerable 0,4-0,5 value. K content can be higher in the end product, despite to earlier higher level of tartrate formation. An attention should be driven to lower level of tartaric acid and consequently higher pH characteristic for wines produced with the application of skin maceration or fermentation sur marc.

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Path analysis and correlation coefficient of environmental factors influencing foraging behaviour of four honeybee species pollinating litchi flowers (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
77-82.

Honeybee species Apis dorsata F; A. mellifera L; A. cerana F. and A.florea F. were the most important and efficient pollinators of litchi flowers (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in India. They constituted more than 65% of the total pollinating insects. The ecological threshold for commencement and cessation of flight activity of each honeybee species varied from one another. In general, 15.5-18.5°C temperature, 600-1700 lx light intensity, 9-20 mW/cm2 solar radiation appeared to be the minimum ecological conditions for commencement of flight activity in Apis species. Cessation of activities in all the honeybee species was governed mainly by decline in values of light intensity and solar radiation irrespective of other factors.

In between commencement and cessation, the activity of all honeybee species followed the same general pattern as temperature (T), light intensity (LI). Solar radiation (SR). Nectar sugar concentration (NSC) and inversely with relative humidity (RH). Path analysis revealed that all the honeybee species differed in their responses to environmental factors prevailing under similar set of conditions depending upon physiological adaptation of each honeybee species. Of all the factors studied; temperature, light intensity and solar radiation were the three important factors whose influence on foraging population was more pronounced.

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Comparative organoleptic examination of apple varieties developed by different environmentally safe technologies
69-70.

Ecological or biological growing techniques are generally recognised as actual trends in agricultural production. The objective of our experiments is a comparison of apple fruits grown alternatively by integrated versus ecological technology. In a collection of varieties, the possibility of the experiment was feasible. At the same time, a comparison of the popularity of existing varieties was also actual. The organoleptic consumer’s tests rated the varieties, and the comparison with instrumentally raised “objective” data could be compared with the subjective ratings, which did not coincide with each other. This phenomenon was revealed in the rating of acid-sugar harmony, where the internationally used quality index of Thiault produced a different range of the samples then the consumer’s test. The same contradiction was observed between ratings of firmness and the data raised by penetrometer.

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