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63-65.
Vol 17No 4-52011

In this two-year study, postharvest decays of pear, apricot, sour cherry and peach cultivars under two storage methods (TC and CA) were determined after four monthes storage periods; and then causal agents of postharvest decays of two pear cultvars were idenfified under traditional cold storage conditions. Results showed that postharvest decay ...was lower under controlled atmosphere compared to traditional cold one. Decay was lower on pear and the largest deacy occured on peach and apricot cultivars. Cultivars of fruit species also showed differences in incidence of fruit decays. Incidence of decays was independent on year effect. Under controlled atmosphere, postharvest decay ranged between 0 an 8% for pear, and between 5 and 12% for apricot, and between 6 and 11% for sour cherry, and between 5 and 15% for peach. Under traditional cold storage, postharvest decay ranged between 16 an 21% for pear, and between 15 and 39% for apricot, and between 10 and 22% for sour cherry, and between 19 and 33% for peach. Incidence of pear fruit damage ranged between 7.5 and 12.3%. Most damage started from injured fruit or wounded fruit. Five types of damage occurred ont he pear fruits in both years: Penicillium spp., Monilinia spp., Chondrostereum spp., other pathogens and mechanical injury. The most common damage was caused by Penicillium spp., Monilina spp. and Chondrostereum spp. On both pear cultivars in both years.

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91-94.
Vol 9No 22003

Favourable parameters are offered to the formation of noble rot caused by Botrytis cinerea by the climatic conditions, soil circumstances and grape-varietes of Tokaj-region. As the result of noble rot, aszú-berries represent the most important raw material of the world-wide known Tokaji Aszú Wine. The objective of this study was to m...easure the penicillin-content of aszú-berries and Tokaj Wine Specialities. As the result of infection of Botrytis free way can be opened in front of other mould strains, especially Penicillium and Aspergillus. There is a possibility to the presence of Penicillium chrysogenum on the surface of aszú-berries during noble rotting process. P. chrysogenum was found to produce the so called Naturally Derived Penicillins such as Penicillin-V (phenoximethyl-penicillin).

According to our findings the Penicillin-V content was detected between 0.4 and 26 mg/1 wine and 0-74 mg/kg aszú-berry. These values do net have therapeutic effect, but physiological benefit and it can be a basis to the qualification of the raw material of Tokaj Wine Specialities naturally together with the other component of noble rotted berries and botrytized wines.

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61-65.
Vol 8No 3-42002

The famous wine Tokaji Aszú is produced from "noble rotted" grapes infected and modified by Botrytis cinerea under special condition. The objective of this study was quantitative and qualitative characterisation of saprophytic fungi present on the surface of aszú­berries, with special regard to yeasts. There were considerable differ...ences in these populations depending on the origin of noble rotted berries, notably between berries taken from the vine or the ones taken from the winery. Beside Botrytis, other mould species like Penicillium, Aspergillus were commonly found, in widely varying population. Yeast counts were detected between 104 and 107 cfu/g berry. In the samples taken from the vineyard Candida pulcherrima predominated followed by some aerobic basidiomycetous species, but Hanseniaspora species were also present in relatively high population. After transport and storage of the grape in the wineries, population of aerobic yeasts and C. pulcherrima quickly declined and Candida stellata followed by other sugar tolerant species became dominant. This autoselection process directs attention to the importance of storage conditions.

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