Effects of different cytokinin supplies including two types of aromatic cytokinins, such as benzyl-adenine, and 3-hydroxybenzyladenine applied at two different concentrations (2.0 and 6.0 μM) were studied on water and gas exchange parameters in in vitro apple leaves of ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘Freedom’ scions after 3 weeks of culture. Cytokin...in supply affected the stomatal conductance of water vapour, transpiration rate and the sub-stomatal CO2 concentration of leaves. Effect of cytokinin depended on its applied type and concentration, moreover on the apple scion. According to the results, the rate of CO2 exchange itself is not usable for characterization of function of photosynthetic apparatus of in vitro leaves. However, measurements of stomatal conductance of water vapour and transpiration rate seemed to be good indicators for stomatal behaviour of in vitro apple leaves.
Remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of agriculture and horticulture. Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments, the 3D laser scanner is one of the newest technique, which overtop in the spatial data collection. Terrestrial laser scanning is an appropriate tool for identifying such b...iophysical parameters like the structure of trees and branches, growth of volume. Determination of these parameters are time consuming and complicated with traditional methods. The examination was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. We used Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner to estimate volumetric properties of the intensive apple orchard. Two rows of the study area were surveyed, where the height and stem diameter of apple trees were measured with Geomagic Studio 12 GIS Demo Software. Based on the built-in algorithms, the volume of each tree were defined by the software. The measured and calculated data was correlated, and middle correlations were detected. Estimated volume results could be useful for further investigation such as CO2 fi xing, which is an important factor for ecological service of the plantation.
Intensive research has been implemented on different aspects of the bee pollination of pear in Hungary in the past decade, extending to the following topics: the effect of the opening sequence of the flowers within the inflorescence of pear cultivars on the effectiveness of bee pollination; the nectar production of flowers of pear cultivars; in...tensity of honeybee visitation and their foraging behaviour at the flowers of pear cultivars; flower constancy of honeybees to pear plantations; competition by weeds in bloom for bee pollination in flowering pear orchards; and some aspects to the bee pollination strategies of pear plantations (the effect of the limitation of bee pollination period on the set and the yield, possible compensation of frost damage of flowers by bee pollination in pear orchards, the optimal size of single cultivar block in pear plantations). The results of these studies are reviewed in this paper and some important aspects that need further studies are outlined.