Vol. 28 (2022)

Effects of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and phenylalanine on aloe emodin and aloin in diploid and tetraploid Aloe barbadensis

Published July 27, 2022
S. Shafighi
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-336, Iran
A. Moieni
Department of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-336, Iran
S. Rashdi Monfared
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-336, Iran


Shafighi, S., Moieni, A., & Rashdi Monfared, S. (2022). Effects of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and phenylalanine on aloe emodin and aloin in diploid and tetraploid Aloe barbadensis. International Journal of Horticultural Science, 28. https://doi.org/10.31421/ijhs/28/2022/9304

Aloe vera is one of the most famous medicinal plants. Aloin and aloe emodin are the most important active compounds in this plant. The purpose of this research was the comparison of aloin and aloe emodin production after the elicitation by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and phenylalanine in diploid and tetraploid Aloe vera plants in greenhouse conditions. The plants were treated with the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 µM. The amounts of aloin and aloe emodin were determined 24 and 48 hours after application of the treatment. HPLC analysis showed that the leaves of the control diploid plants (without applying elicitors) had more aloin (1.20 fold) and aloe emodin (1.14 fold) than the control tetraploid plants. The maximum concentration of aloin (1.15 ± 0.07 µg mg-1 dry weight) was obtained after the elicitation by 25 µM methyl jasmonate, 24 hours after treatment, in diploid plants) 6.36 fold compared to the control (0.18 µg mg-1 dry weight (. In addition, the maximum concentration of aloe emodin (0.28 µg mg-1 dry weight) was obtained after the elicitation by 25 µM salicylic acid, 24 hours after treatment, in diploid plants) 6.18 fold compared to the control (0.04 µg mg-1 dry weight)). The long-term effect of three studied elicitors (after 240 days) on plant health and survival was also studied. This investigation showed that only methyl jasmonate at a concentration of 100 µM was resulted in the death of Aloe vera plants.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
  1. Abdoli, M., Moieni, A., & Badi, H. N. (2013): Morphological, physiological, cytological and phytochemical studies in diploid and colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of Echinacea purpurea (L.). Acta physiologiae plantarum, 35(7), 2075-2083. ‏
  2. Acurero, Á. M. (2008): Aloe sin, aloin and aloe-emodin production in Aloe vera L. calli. Ciencia, 16(4). ‏
  3. Adaniya, S. and Shira, D. (2001): In vitro induction of tetraploid Ginger (Zinger officinalis Roscoe) and its pollen fertility and germinability. Sci Hortic., 88: 277–287.
  4. Ajungla, L., Patil, P. P, Barmukh, R. B. and Nikam, T. D. (2009): Influence of biotic and abiotic elicitors on accumulation of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in root cultures of Datura metel L. Indian J Biotech., 8: 317-322.
  5. Andi, S. A., Gholami, M., Ford, C. M., & Maskani, F. (2019): The effect of light, phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate, alone or in combination, on growth and secondary metabolism in cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 199, 111625. ‏
  6. Bagheri, M., & Mansouri, H. (2015): Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 175(5): 2366-2375. ‏
  7. Berkov, S. and Philipov, S. (2002): Alkaloid production in diploid and autotetraploid plants of Datura stramonium. Pharma Biol., 40: 617–621.
  8. Bertea, C. M., Azzolin, C. M. M., Bossi, S., Doglia, G. and Maffei, M. E. (2005): Identification of an EcoRI restriction site for a rapid and precise determination of β-asarone-free Acorus calamus cytotypes. Phytochemistry, 66: 507-514.
  9. Biswas, T., Mathur, A., Gupta, V., Luqman, S., & Mathur, A. K. (2020): Elicitation and phenylalanine precursor feeding based modulation of in vitro anthocyanin production, enzyme activity and gene expression in an Indian ginseng congener-Panax sikkimensis Ban. Industrial Crops and Products, 145, 111986. ‏
  10. Blume, B., Nürnberger, T., Nass, N., & Scheel, D. (2000): Receptor-mediated increase in cytoplasmic free calcium required for activation of pathogen defense in parsley. The Plant Cell, 12(8), 1425-1440.
  11. Boller, T. (1995): Chemoperception of microbial signals in plant cells. Annual review of plant biology, 46(1), 189-214.
  12. Boudreau, M. D., & Beland, F. A. (2006): An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (Miller), Aloe vera. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C, 24(1), 103-154. ‏
  13. Cousins, S.R., and Witkowski, E.T.F. (2012): African aloe ecology: A review. J. Arid Environ. 85: 1–17.
  14. Creelman, R. A. and Mullet, J. E. (1997): Biosynthesis and action of jasmonates in plants. Annual review of plant biology, 48 (1): 355-381.
  15. Davies, K. M., Schwinn, K. E., Deroles, S. C., Manson, D. G., Lewis, D. H., Bloor, S. J., & Bradley, J. M. (2003): Enhancing anthocyanin production by altering competition for substrate between flavonol synthase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. Euphytica, 131(3), 259-268.
  16. Depicker A, Van Montagu M: Post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997, 9:373-382.
  17. Dhawan, O. P. and Lavania, U. C. (1996): Enhancing the productivity of secondary metabolites via induced polyploidy: a review. Euphytica, 87: 81-89.
  18. Draper, J. (1997): Salicyliate × superoxide synthesis and cell suicide in plant defense. Trends Plant Sci., 2: 162-165.
  19. ElSohly, M. A., Gul, W., & Murphy, T. P. (2004): Analysis of the anthraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. International immune pharmacology, 4(14), 1739-1744. ‏
  20. Elsohly, M.A., Gul, W. (2007): Determination of the antraquinones aloe-emodin and aloin-A by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and diode array detection; Journal of AOAC International, 90: 28–42.
  21. Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S., Sharifi, M., Behmanesh, M., Safaie, N., Murata, J., Yamagaki, T. and Satake, H. (2011): Increased lignin biosynthesis in the suspension cultures of Linum album by fungal extracts. Plant Biotech Rep., 5: 367–373.
  22. Farag, M. A., Al-Mahdy, D. A., Meyer, A., Westphal, H., & Wessjohann, L. A. (2017): Metabolomics reveals biotic and abiotic elicitor effects on the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi terpenoid content. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 648. ‏
  23. Gonzalez, L. D. J. and Weathers, P. J. (2003): Tetraploid Artemisia annua hairy roots produce more artemisinin than diploids. Plant Cell Rep., 21: 809-811.
  24. Guihua, L. I., Ren, W., Rongjing, D. I. N. G., Lei, W., Sanqing, J. I. A., Lin, Z. H. A. O., & Daokuo, Y. A. O. (2010): Influence of valsartan-eluting stent on neointima formation. Journal of cardiovascular disease research, 1(1), 19-22. ‏
  25. Halverson, K., S. B. Heard, J. D. Nason, and J. O. Stireman III. (2008b): Origins, distribution, and local co-occurrence of polyploidy cytotypes in Solidago altissima (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 95: 50 – 58.
  26. Hansen, D. L., C. Lambertini, A. Jampeetong, and H. Brix. (2007): Clone-specific differences in Phragmites australis: Effects of ploidy level and geographic origin. Aquatic Botany 86: 269 – 279.
  27. Hao, X., Shi, M., Cui, L., Xu, C., Zhang, Y. and Kai, G. (2015): Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on tanshinone production and biosynthetic gene expression in transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Biotechnology and applied biochemistry, 62 (1): 24-31.
  28. Hayashi, H., Huang, P. and Inoue, K. (2003): Up-regulation of soyasaponin biosynthesis by methyl jasmonate in cultured cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra Plant and cell physiology, 44 (4): 404-411.
  29. Hazrati, S., Sarvestani, Z. T., & Babaei, A. (2012): Enhancing yield and aloin concentration of Aloe vera plants by simultaneous application of N and benzyl adenine. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(10), 1834-1841.
  30. Hull‐Sanders, H. M., Johnson, R. H., Owen, H. A., & Meyer, G. A. (2009): Effects of polyploidy on secondary chemistry, physiology, and performance of native and invasive genotypes of Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany, 96(4), 762-770.
  31. Hwang, S. J. (2006): Baicalin production in transformed hairy root clones of Scutellaria baicalensis. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng., 11: 105–109.
  32. Ido izhakj, I. (2002): Emodin–a secondary metabolite with multiple ecological functions in higher plants. New Phytologist, 155(2): 205-217. ‏
  33. Kanama, S.K., Viljoen, A.M., Kamatou, G.P., Chen, W., Sandasi, M., Adhami, H.R. (2015): Simultaneous quantification of anthrones and chromones in Aloe ferox (“Cape aloes”) using UHPLC-MS; Phytochemistry Letters, 13: 85–90.
  34. Ketchum, R. E., Tandon, M., Gibson, D. M., Begley, T. and Shuler, M. L. (1999): Isolation of labeled 9-dihydrobaccatin III and related taxoids from cell cultures of Taxus canadensis elicited with methyl jasmonate. Journal of natural products, 62 (10): 1395-1398.
  35. Khosravi, P., Kermani, M. J., Nematzadeh, G. A., Bihamta, M. R. and Yokoya, K. (2008): Role of mitotic inhibitors and genotype on chromosome doubling of Rosa. Euphytica, 160: 267–275.
  36. Kim, K. S., Zhao, Y., Jang, H., Lee, S. Y., Kim, J. M., Kim, K. S., and Hong, B. H. (2009): Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. nature, 457(7230), 706.
  37. Koul, S., Sambyal, M., Kitchlu, S. K., Bakshi, S. K. and Kaul, M. K. (2010): Development, micropropagation and characterization of colchiploid of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. Indian J Biotech., 9: 221-224.
  38. Krzyzanowska, J., Czubacka, A., Pecio, L., Przybys, M., Doroszewska, T., Stochmal, A. and Oleszek, W. (2012): The effects of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate on rosmarinic acid production in Mentha× piperita cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 108 (1): 73-81.
  39. Kubátová, B., P. Trávní Č ek, D. Bastlová, V. Č urn, V. Jarolimová, and J. Suda. (2008): DNA ploidy-level variation in native and invasive populations of Lythrum salicaria at a large geographic scale. Journal of Biogeography 35: 167 – 176.
  40. Lavania, U. C. and Strivastava, S. (1991): Enhanced productivity of tropane alkaloids and fertility in artificial autotetraploids of Hyoscyamus niger L. Euphytica, 52: 73-77.
  41. Li, Y., Yang, G., Jiang, K., Lin, H., Zhao, J., Ade, H., ... & Yan, H. (2016): Efficient organic solar cells processed from hydrocarbon solvents. Nature Energy, 1(2), 15027. ‏
  42. Machado, D. I., López-Cervantes, J., Mariscal-Domínguez, M. F., Cruz-Flores, P., Campas-Baypoli, O. N., Cantú-Soto, E. U., & Sanches-Silva, A. (2016): An HPLC Procedure for the Quantification of Aloin in Latex and Gel from Aloe barbadensis Leaves. Journal of chromatographic science, 55(3), 251-257. ‏
  43. Madon, M., Clyde, M. M. and Hashim, H. (2005): Polyploidy induction of oil palm through Colchicine and oryzalin treatments. J Oil Palm Res., 17: 110-123.
  44. Mahor, G., & Ali, S. A. (2016): Recent update on the medicinal properties and use of Aloe vera in the treatment of various ailments. Biosci Biotechnol Res Commun, 9:273-288. ‏
  45. Majdi, M., Karimzadeh, G., Malboobi, M. A., Omidbaigi, R. and Mirzaghaderi, G. (2010): Induction of tetraploidy to feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium Schulz-Bip.): morphological, physiological, cytological, and phytochemical changes. HortSci., 45 (1): 16–21.
  46. Mandrioli, R., Mercolini, L., Ferranti, A., Fanali, S., & Raggi, M. A. (2011): Determination of aloe emodin in Aloe vera extracts and commercial formulations by HPLC with tandem UV absorption and fluorescence detection. Food Chemistry, 126(1), 387-393. ‏
  47. Mangas, S., Bonfill, M., Osuna, L., Moyano, E., Tortoriello, J., Cusido, R. M., ... & Palazón, J. (2006): The effect of methyl jasmonate on triterpene and sterol metabolisms of Centella asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus and Galphimia glauca cultured plants. Phytochemistry, 67(18), 2041-2049. ‏
  48. Matzke, M. A., & Matzke, A. J. (1995): How and why do plants inactivate homologous (trans) genes. Plant Physiology, 107(3), 679.
  49. Metzlaff M, O’Dell M, Cluster PD, Flavell RB (1997): RNA-mediated RNA degradation and chalcone synthase A silencing in petunia. Cell, 88:845-854.
  50. Minshi, D., Guillén, F., Pérez-Aguilar, H., Castillo, S., Serrano, M., Zapata, P. J., &Valero, D. (2016): Is it possible to increase the aloin content of Aloe vera by the use of ultraviolet light? Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 61(9):2165-2170. ‏
  51. Mirzaei, M., & Shafiee, A Foroumadi, A. (2001): Antituberculosis agents II. Evaluation of in vitro antituberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of some 2-(1-methyl-5-nitro-2-imidazolyl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole derivatives. Il Farmaco, 56(8), 621-623. ‏
  52. Molsaghi, M., Moieni, A., & Kahrizi, D. (2014): Efficient protocol for rapid Aloe vera micropropagation. Pharm
  53. Namdeo, A. G. (2007): Plant cell elicitation for production of secondary metabolites: a review. Pharmacogn Rev, 1(1), 69-79.
  54. Nazmul, A. M., Sugahara, S., & Tanaka, M. (2003): Ferromagnetism and high Curie temperature in semiconductor heterostructures with Mn δ-doped GaAs and p-type selective doping. Physical Review B, 67(24), 241308. ‏
  55. Omid, B. R., Mirzaei, M., Hassani, M. E. and Sedghi Moghadam, M. (2010): Induction and identification of polyploidy in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) medicinal plant by colchicine treatment. Int J Plant Prod., 4 (2): 87–98.
  56. Pal, S., Sahrawat, A., Prakash, D. (2013): Aloe vera: composition, processing and medicinal properties; International journal of current discoveries and innovations, 2: 106–122.
  57. Park M.Y., Kwon H.J., Sung M. (2009): Evaluation of aloin and aloe-emodin as anti-inflammatory agents in aloe by using murine macrophages. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 73: 828–832
  58. Park, M. K., Park, J. H., Kim, N. Y., Shin, Y. G., Choi, Y. S., Lee, J. G., ... & Lee, S. K. (1998): Analysis of 13 phenolic compounds in Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography. Phytochemical Analysis: An International Journal of Plant Chemical and Biochemical Techniques, 9(4), 186-191. ‏
  59. Pauwels, L., Inzé, D., & Goossens, A. (2009): Jasmonate-inducible gene: what does it mean? Trends in plant science, 14(2), 87-91. ‏
  60. Qin, W. M., & Lan, W. Z. (2004): Fungal elicitor-induced cell death in Taxus chinensis suspension cells is mediated by ethylene and polyamines. Plant science, 166(4), 989-995. ‏
  61. Qu, S. Q., & Dumay, J. (2011): The qualitative research interview. Qualitative research in accounting & management, 8(3), 238-264.
  62. Radman, R., Saez, T., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. (2003): Elicitation of plants and microbial cell systems. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 37 (1): 91-102.
  63. Ramachandra, R. S., & Ravishankar, G. A. (2002): Biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanilla flavor metabolites and capsaicin in freely suspended and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum frutescens: study of the influence of β-cyclodextrin and fungal elicitor. Process Biochemistry, 35, 341-348.
  64. Roewer, I. A., Cloutier, N., Nessler, C. L. and De Luca, V. (1992): Transient induction of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (SS) genes in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Plant Cell Reports, 11 (2): 86-89.
  65. Saharkhiz, M. J., SATARI, M., & GOUDARZI, G. R. (2008): Assessment of antibacterial properties of Tanacetum parthenium L. essential oil. ‏
  66. Schlaepfer, D. R., P. J. Edwards, J. C. Semple, an & R. Billeted. (2008): Cytogeography of Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae) and its invasive ploidy level. Journal of Biogeography 35: 2119 – 2127.
  67. Seagraves, K. A., and J. N. Thompson. (1999): Plant polyploidy and pollination: Floral traits and insect visits to diploid and tetraploid Heuchera grossulariifolia. Evolution 53: 1114 – 1127.
  68. Sembdner, G. A. P. B., & Parthier, B. (1993): The biochemistry and the physiological and molecular actions of jasmonates. Annual review of plant biology, 44(1), 569-589. ‏
  69. Shao, J., Chen, C. and Deng, X. (2003): In vitro induction of tetraploid in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Plant Cell, Tiss Organ Cult., 75: 241-246.
  70. Smyth, D. R. (1997): Gene silencing: suppression at a distance. Current Biology, 7(12), R793-R796.
  71. Udomsuk, L., Tanaka, H., Jarukamjorn, K. and Putalun, W. (2011): Improved isoflavonoid production in Pueraria candollei hairy root cultures using elicitation. Biotechnol Lett., 33: 369–374.
  72. Vasconsuelo, A., & Boland, R. (2007): Molecular aspects of the early stages of elicitation of secondary metabolites in plants. Plant science, 172(5), 861-875.
  73. Veerashree, V., Anuradha, C. M., & Kumar, V. (2012): Elicitor-enhanced production of gymnemic acid in cell suspension cultures of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), 108(1), 27-35.
  74. Wang, J., Li, J., Li, J., Liu, S., Wu, X., Li, J., & Gao, W. (2016): Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root. Scientific reports, 6, 37263. ‏
  75. Wang, P., Zhou, W., Wamer, W., Krynitsky, A.J., Rader, J.I. (2012): Simultaneous determination of aloin A and aloe-emodin in products containing Aloe vera by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry; Analytical Methods, 4: 3612–3619.
  76. Wungsintaweekul, J., Choo-malee, J., Charoonratana, T. and Keawpradub, N. (2012): Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture. Biotechnology letters, 34 (10): 1945-1950.
  77. Yavari, A., Sarkani, S., & Moyer Jr, E. T. (2000): On applications of generalized functions to beam bending problems. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 37(40), 5675-5705. ‏
  78. Yukimune, Y., Tabata, H., Higashi, Y., & Hara, Y. (1996): Methyl jasmonate-induced overproduction of paclitaxel and baccatin III in Taxus cell suspension cultures. Nature biotechnology, 14(9), 1129.