59. évf. , 1–2. szám (2020): Orosz irodalom – fordításokban
A kötetben szereplő tanulmányok a fordításelméleti kérdésektől kezdve az orosz irodalom magyarországi recepcióján keresztül konkrét fordítási problémákat tárgyaló írásokig a legkülönfélébb aspektusból mutatják be a műfordítás elméletét és gyakorlatát. Ezt a sokszínű anyagot ugyanakkor az orosz-magyar (illetv...e magyar-orosz) nyelvpár fogja össze: egyfelől az orosz irodalom konkrét fordítási példáinak absztrahálása vezetett bizonyos elméleti megfontolásokra, másfelől általános fordításelméleti problémák egy-egy orosz irodalmi mű fordításának példáján keresztül konkretizálódnak.
The study focuses on the reception of Russian literature, more precisely contemporary Russian literature. The author of the article examines the question whether and how much a translated literary work can become an integral part of the recipient culture and what are those fundamental aspects based upon which a national culture, as a recipient,... “chooses” certain works of a foreign literature to be translated. After outlining the history of Hungarian reception of translated Russian literature the paper introduces in detail the last 35 years of Hungarian reception of Russian literature, including the well-differentiated periods and the aspects of reception. The paper aims to answer the question fundamental in Russian-Hungarian translation as well: ‘What to translate?’
The study defines the place of the concept of translation (conception of translation) in the Slovakian tradition of translation, which goes back to the Russian (Chukovsky, Gumilyov, Fedorov) and Czech (Jiři Levỳ) translation, as well as philological (OPOJAZ, Prague linguistic circle) schools. In connection with these the author also compares... literary criticism and translation criticism.
The paper focuses on the analysis of e-literature, which is also present in contemporary Russian literature. It defines e-literature as a modern cultural phenomenon which heavily builds upon the readers’ activity and choices, as well as interactivity. It reviews the characteristics of e-literature and its place in today’s literature, primar...ily based upon Mikhail Epstein’s theories. The article introduces the genre diversity and potentials of e-literature through one of the most characteristic works in Russian e-literature, Boris Akunin’s Octopus project.
The paper calls attention to the realist tendency in contemporary Russian literature, which intensified in the past two decades, highlighting the “new realist” trend. The author also points out that the realist tendency is not homogeneous, it includes various writing methods which may differ greatly. To illustrate this the paper introduce...s two contemporary authors, Alexey Varlamov and Alexander Snegirev, and through their most characteristic works two realist, but markedly different writing methods: Varlamov converges his realist point of view towards an archaic-mythological aspect, Snegirev’s method is ruthlessly honest, describing the dehumanisation and superficial nature of people.
The paper analyses one of the short stories of Tatyana Tolstaya, who is one of the most important representatives of Russian postmodern literature. The study focuses on the loss in the translation process of intertextual connections when translated into another culture. In Tolstaya’s oeuvre the irony present in rich intertextual references an...d the grotesque and absurd methods primarily aim to de-pathos the classic Russian literature. The problem of intertextuality is most significant in Tolstaya’s “Szjuzset” therefore the difficulties of translation are most demonstrable in this work.
The paper analyses a short story from one of the best known representatives of the Russian new realist literature, Roman Senchin’s “A Real Man” (“Nasztojascsij pareny”), and it also examines the experiences of the Hungarian translator in connection with its translation. The article focuses on the loss of meaning which is generated by...the differences between the two distinct cultures, despite the best efforts of the translator. The Senchin text poses a near impossible task for the translator because of its intertextual connections with the Russian cult film, Brother, together with the untranslatable cultural codes in the film.
The paper comprehensively interprets two novels by one of the most acclaimed Russian authors, Eugene Vodolazkin, which were published in Hungarian as well. The author of the article – as the Hungarian translator of the two texts – interprets Vodolazkin’s works as the particular meeting place of various cultural codes. Including some of th...e aspects of postcolonialist literary criticism he concludes that the latent imperial point of view in the novels – due to the diversity of cultural codes – cannot be transferred into the translation.
The paper exemplifies how important translation analysis can be to interpret even the original work. It focuses on a certain text, the Hungarian – and in some cases the English, German and Polish – translation of the well-known Chekhov short story, "The Lady with the Dog”, to comprehensively illustrate the different translational solution...s, and as a consequence it gets closer to the interpretation of the nature of Chekhov’s laconism, parabolic writing method.
The style of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s most important work, The Gulag Archipelago is highly varied. It includes the hatred towards totalitarian regime, the deep empathy towards the sufferers, as well as painful confessions and sincere self-punishment for his own past, etc.: all this is conveyed to the reader in a direct conversational language..., which is often similar to the linguistic register close to live speech. One of the most significant means to maintain this directness is the frequent use of idioms and proverbs in the three-volume novel: the article introduces their structure and function in the novels, including the difficulties in translation due to the phrasemes.
There are very few published memoirs of Soviet soldiers who fought in the Second World War, despite the fact that the narratives of the ones who survived this loaded historical period may significantly shape our understanding of it. The deeds of Soviet soldiers fighting in Hungary varies greatly, from genocide to rescue, which topic is touched...upon by the paper. The article provides the translation technical analysis of the notes of the Georgian Soviet soldier, Alexei Alexandrovich Chkheidze, who fought in Hungary and met a tragic fate. It gives prominence to the fact that the literary translator often has to do the work of a technical translator: they must thoroughly research the contemporary military jargon and clothing, as well as the altered naming of various locations.
The paper discusses a specialised branch of translation, lm translation, more precisely subtitle translation. Film subtitle translation is not only difficult for its linguistic and cultural aspects but for its technical challenges as well. The translation needs to comply with such technical criteria as the length of the subtitle, the timefram...e for reading, and in certain cases the lip movement of the actor in the lm. In the last section of the article the author demonstrates his previously made points by sharing his experiences with the translation of The Aristocratic Peasant Girl by Russian director Aleksey Sakharov.
The paper introduces the criticism of the Russian translation of one of the popular novels of Rejtő, Skeletal Brigade. Demonstrating through numerous examples and by the “backwards translation” of the Russian text, the author sets out to understand through certain instances what might have caused the spectacular mistranslations in the Russ...ian text. The article may also serve as an example for the lack of similar thorough translation criticism in Hungarian critical literature, which might contribute to the improvement of the Hungarian literature translation.
The paper studies the question of the possibility of teaching and learning translation, especially literary translation. First, it examines the theoretical principles of whether the necessary skills for literary translation can be acquired, and what possible forms are there to teach and learn translation. The theoretical standpoint of the autho...r is based upon the training of those Russian young people who are in a special circumstance in Russia, since they translate the literature of a “small language”, Hungarian, to Russian. The author analyses various translator trainings besides university education: translator trainings, literary translation seminars, master courses, and literary translation camps.