Vol. 8 No. 1 (2021)
Articles

Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Volkswagen Crafter with 2.0 TDI CR Diesel Engine: VW Vehicle 2020 Based PMSM Propulsion

Published December 30, 2021
Aminu Babangida
Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
Péter Tamás Szemes
Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
PDF

APA

Babangida, A., & Szemes, P. T. (2021). Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Volkswagen Crafter with 2.0 TDI CR Diesel Engine: VW Vehicle 2020 Based PMSM Propulsion . Recent Innovations in Mechatronics, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.17667/riim.2021.1/1.

The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) used by conventional vehicles is one of the major causes of environmental global warming and air pollutions. However, the emission of toxic gases is harmful to the living. Electric propulsion has been developed in modern electric vehicles to replace the ICE.

The research is aimed at using both Simulink and SIMSCAPE toolboxes in a MATLAB to model the vehicle. This research proposes a Volkswagen (VW) crafter with a 2.0 diesel TDI CR engine, manufactured in 2020. An electric power train, a rear-wheel driven, based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) was designed to replace the front-wheel driven, diesel engine of the VW conventional vehicle.

In this research, a Nissan leaf battery of a nominal voltage of 360 V, 24 kWh capacity was modeled to serve as the energy source of the overall system. A New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) was used in this research. Another test input such as a ramp was also used to test the vehicle under different road conditions. However, a Proportional Integral (PI) controller was developed to control both the speed of the vehicle and that of the synchronous motor. Different drive cycles were used to test the vehicle. The vehicle demonstrated good tracking capability with each type of test. In addition, this research found out that there is approximately about 19% more benefit in terms of fuel economy of electric vehicles than the conventional vehicles.

  1. REFERENCES
  2. G. Şenocak, Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles, Third edit. London Newyork: Tailor & Francis Group, an information business, 2019.
  3. F. Un-Noor, S. Padmanaban, L. Mihet-Popa, M. N. Mollah, and E. Hossain, “A comprehensive study of key electric vehicle (EV) components, technologies, challenges, impacts, and future direction of development,” Energies, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1–82, 2017, DOI: 10.3390/en10081217.
  4. T. A. T. Mohd, M. K. Hassan, and W. M. K. A. Aziz, “Mathematical modeling and simulation of an electric vehicle,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 8, no. June, pp. 1312–1321, 2015, DOI: 10.15282/James.8.2015.6.0128.
  5. S. M. Shariff, D. Iqbal, M. Saad Alam, and F. Ahmad, “A State of the Art Review of Electric Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, vol. 561, no. 1, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/561/1/012103.
  6. C. C. Cioroianu, D. G. Marinescu, A. Iorga, and A. R. Sibiceanu, “Simulation of an electric vehicle model on the new WLTC test cycle using AVL CRUISE software,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, vol. 252, no. 1, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/252/1/012060.
  7. B. Wahono, A. Nur, W. B. Santoso, and A. Praptijanto, “A comparison study of range-extended engines for electric vehicle based on vehicle simulator,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1803–1816, 2016, DOI: 10.15282/James.10.1.2016.5.0173.
  8. C. Marmaras, E. Xydas, and L. Cipcigan, “Simulation of electric vehicle driver behavior in road transport and electric power networks,” Transp. Res. Part C Emerg. Technol., vol. 80, pp. 239–256, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2017.05.004.
  9. S. A. Abu Bakar, M. F. Muhamad Said, and A. A. Aziz, “Ride comfort performance evaluations on electric vehicle conversion via simulations,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 17, pp. 7794–7798, 2015.
  10. A. Emadi, Advanced Electric Drive Vehicles.Ontario, Canada: Tailor & Francis Group, 2014.
  11. V. P. Virani, S. Arya, and J. . Baria, “Modelling and Control of PMSM Drive-by Field Oriented Control For HEV,” in SSRN Electronic Journal, 2019, pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3442515.
  12. J. Espina, A. Arias, J. Balcells, and C. Ortega, “Speed anti-windup PI strategies review for field-oriented control of permanent magnet synchronous machines,” in CPE 2009 - 6th International Conference-Workshop - Compatability and Power Electronics, 2009, no. June 2009, pp. 279–285, DOI: 10.1109/CPE.2009.5156047.
  13. W. Lina, X. Kun, L. De Lillo, L. Empringham, and P. Wheeler, “PI controller relay auto-tuning using delay and phase margin in PMSM drives,” Chinese J. Aeronaut., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1527–1537, 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.cja.2014.10.019.
  14. S. Yang, Y. Lu, and S. Li, “An overview on vehicle dynamics,” Int. J. Dyn. Control, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 385–395, 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s40435-013-0032-y.
  15. A. Saleem and A. Iqbal, “Calculation Along With Factors Affecting the Total Tractive Power and Energy Demand,” 2020, pp. 0–4.
  16. T. Dogruer and N. Tan, “Design of PI Controller using Optimization Method in Fractional Order Control Systems,” in IFAC-PapersOnLine, 2018, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 841–846, DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.06.124.
  17. W. Tan, H. J. Marquez, and T. Chen, “Performance assessment of PID controllers,” Control Intell. Syst., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 158–166, 2004, DOI: 10.2316/journal.201.2004.3.201-1309.
  18. G. Du, S. Member, W. Cao, S. Member, and S. Hu, “Assessment of an Electric Vehicle Powertrain Model Based on Real-World Driving and Charging Cycles,” vol. 9545, no. c, 2018, DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2018.2884812.
  19. MathWorks Student Competition Team (2020). "Physical Modeling for Formula Student": Introduction to Simscape Retrieved October 18, 2020
  20. Isaac Ito, "Battery Electric Vehicle Model in Simscape(htttps://githumb.com/mathworks/Simscape-Battery-Electric-Vehicle Model/releases/tag/1.0.0), GitHub, 2021.
  21. Pacejka, H. B. Tire, and Vehicle Dynamics Elsevier Science, 2005.