Vol 2, No 2 (2008)

Published March 19, 2019

Issue Description

Kircsi, A.: Large scale wind climatological examinations of wind energy utilization

Makra, L. - Sümeghy, Z.: Environmental objective analysis, ranking and clustering of Hungarian cities

Kertész, Zs. - Szoboszlai, Z. - Dobos, E. - Borbély-Kiss, I.: Characterization of urban aerosol sources in Debrecen, Hungary

Szabó, Sz. - Posta, J. - Gosztonyi, Gy. - Mészáros, I. - Prokisch, J.: Heavy metal content of flood sediments and plants near the River Tisza

Myga-Piatek, U. - Nita, J. The scenic value of abandoned mining areas in Poland

Haase, D. Modelling the effects of long-term urban land use change on the water balance

Csorba, P. Potential applications of landscape ecological patch-gradient maps in nature conservational landscape planning

Fischer, W.: Survey of abandoned industrial sites in the province of Carinthia (Austria) - methodology and results 



Large scale wind climatological examinations of wind energy utilization

The aim of this article is to describe the particular field of climatology which analyzes air movement
characteristics regarding utilization of wind for energy generation. The article describes features of
wind energy potential available in Hungary compared to wind conditions in other areas of the
northern quarter sphere in order to as...sist the wind energy use development in Hungary. Information
on wind climate gives a solid basis for financial and economic decisions of stakeholders in the field of
wind energy utilization.

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Environmental objective analysis, ranking and clustering of Hungarian cities

The aim of the study was to rank and classify Hungarian cities and counties according to their
environmental quality and level of environmental awareness. Ranking of the Hungarian cities and
counties are represented on their „Green Cities Index” and „Green Counties Index” values. According
to the methodology shown in Part 1, ci...ties and counties were grouped on different classification
techniques and efficacy of the classification was analysed. However, they did not give acceptable
results either for the cities, or for the counties. According to the parameters of the here mentioned
three algorithms, reasonable structures were not found in any clustering. Clusters received applying
algorithm fanny, though having weak structure, indicate large and definite regions in Hungary, which
can be circumscribed by clear geographical objects.

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Characterization of urban aerosol sources in Debrecen, Hungary

Debrecen is an average middle European city from the point of view of aerosol pollution. Its location
makes the city an ideal place for observing aerosol transport processes. Systematic investigation of
atmospheric aerosol of the east-Hungarian region has been performed in the Institute of Nuclear
Research of the Hungarian Academy of S...ciences for 20 years by accelerator based elemental
analytical technique. As a complementation of this research we observed the size distribution and
short-term time variation of the elemental component of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-PM2.5) urban
aerosol in the frame of sampling campaigns during 2007 and 2008 in a downtown site of Debrecen.
Meteorological parameters were also recorded parallel to the aerosol sampling. Elemental
concentrations (Z ≥ 12) were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical
technique at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications (IBA) of the ATOMKI. On the obtained
database six sources of the urban aerosol were identified: 2 types of soil, domestic heating, sulphate
originating from long range transport processes, an unidentified source enriched with chlorine and
traffic. Emission episodes were also observed. The short-time variation of urban aerosol combined
with meteorological data and with mass size distribution serves as a basis to reach a better
understanding of the aerosol sources in receptor areas, to select local emission and long range
transport episodes, to follow the evolution of aerosol, and to make a better estimate on the health

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Heavy metal content of flood sediments and plants near the River Tisza

The River Tisza is Hungary’s especially important river. It is significant not only because of the
source of energy and the value insured by water (hydraulical power, shipping route, stock of fish,
aquatic environment etc.) but the active floodplain between levees as well. Ploughlands, orchards,
pastures, forests and oxbow lakes can ...be found here. They play a significant role in the life of the
people living near the river and depend considerably on the quality of the sediments settled by the
river. Several sources of pollution can be found in the catchment area of the River Tisza and some of
them significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and its active floodplain. In this paper we
study the concentration of zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt in sediments settled in the active floodplain
and the ratio of these metals taken up by plants. Furthermore, our aim was to study the vertical
distribution of these elements by the examination of soil profiles. The metal content of the studied
area does not exceed the critical contamination level, except in the case of nickel, and the ratio of
metals taken up by plants does not endanger the living organisms. The vertical distribution of metals
in the soil is heterogeneous, depending on the ratio of pollution coming from abroad and the quality
of flood.

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The scenic value of abandoned mining areas in Poland

Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer
the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the
monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to
legislation that hampers a more diversified manage...ment of abandoned mining areas as potentially
valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more
attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m
deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources)
and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the
process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some
negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are
situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be
reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of
experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by
interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

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Modelling the effects of long-term urban land use change on the water balance

The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and
the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of
current and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the
increasing intensity of soil usage, ...in many urban landscapes the soil conditions has deteriorated. The
natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by
land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, the
decline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies.
In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly
how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use
change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve our
general understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of
this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term water
balance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid
to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

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Potential applications of landscape ecological patch-gradient maps in nature conservational landscape planning

There are rather limited opportunities for using the results of landscape ecology in practical nature
conservation. The reasonS for this are – at least partly – the different scales and frames of the two
fields. For more effective cooperation there is an opportunity for landscape ecology to determine
patch-gradients that are helpfu...l for nature protection in expanding the living space of endangered
species via CORINE land use-pattern in mixed use agricultural areas. Such alternative migration
tracks become valuable in places, where landscape ecological corridors and stepping stone places are
missing. The method applies the gradient concept of landscape structure of McGarigal and Cushman
(2005). Determination of patch-gradients can be a good background material for settlement- and
infrastructure planning; and for the elaboration of medium- and long term nature protection concepts
or for even general landscape protection strategies as well.

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Survey of abandoned industrial sites in the province of Carinthia (Austria) - methodology and results

The paper in hand mainly addresses the issue of abandoned industrial and commercial sites. The
results of a survey form the central content and regards the method of investigation of this survey of
abandoned sites in the province of Carinthia, including experiences and recommendations. The survey
started with a number of more than 10,0...00 businesses. After the different steps of the survey (research
phase, exploration phase, clarification phase and evaluation phase) 444 sites had to be attributed an
increased potential for danger. After these steps followed an evaluation which concerned the priority
in regard to the securing and/ or remediation of the abandoned sites. On the basis of certain gathered
values, future surveys of abandoned industrial and commercial sites can be calculated fairly exactly.

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