In fruit production – among stone fruits – sweet cherry is considered to have great promise, but species of sweet cherry need improvement. Cherry plantations are advanced in years, therefore putting into operation high productivity plantations is an important field of research. Through clonal selection and cross-breeding, several new cherry... species were created in the recent past in Hungary. Spread of these species is also important. In our factorial cherry production, we use high trunk trees and trees with large crowns. Intensive plantations are very few in number.
Our goal is to study the morphological and physiological properties of new sweet cherry cultivars. The most important aim is to combine the productive area of foliage and the fruit quality. The present study shows the self pollination, fruit setting and fruit quality parameters.
Due to global climate warming, frequency of negative weather effects (rainfall amounts, distribution, sortness) are increasing. Rainfall
amounts and frequency has also great effect of sweet cherry fruit quality around fruit ripening. Determination of optimal technological
basics (such as first class fruit quality and economic value) are a
be solved with introduction of a new intensive training system. One of the solutions can be rain protecting foil which can reduce fruit
cracking and fruit rot. Without this option sweet cherry can not be grown in many countries. In this study, fruit quality parameters were
compared from a 10 year old intensive (4 x 1m) sweet cherry orchard. The effect of rain protecting foil was tested in comparison with fruits
from not covered tree
The Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed significantly in the last decades, which primarily resulted in growing intensity of the orchards. Due to the favourable selling prices of the sweet cherry many growers see good prospects in this fruit. One of the key questions of their success is the choice of the most proper canopy form ac...cording to the growing conditions, which facilities the efficient completion of annual technological operations.
In new orchards almost exclusively variations of spindle canopies are established, although many other crown forms are used all over the world. From the point of the domestic sweet cherry production it is indispensable to get information about these canopies, and compare with the prevailing crown forms with central axis.
In our experiment we compared free spindle and bush canopies in the Horticultural Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen in 2013. According to our results it can be stated that the bush canopy can be described with more balanced growth, which makes easier to maintain the vegetative and generative balance. Another positive characteristic of the bush canopy is, that the height of the trees is smaller with 50% compared with the free spindle, which makes the pruning and the harvest easier.
There are several extended studies in sweet cherry production in Hungary and all over the world i.e. for creation and maintainence of smaller tree crown and high density orchards. The use of suitable dwarf rootstocks for this fruit species are very limited. On one hand, most of the draf rootstocks do not cause enough growth reduction and on the... other hand these rootstocks are get old very quikcly and their fruits become small, and therefore, they not serve the requirements for intensification. In summary, there is a need for those rootstock which are vital, regeneration enhanching and delay ageing. Due to ensuring above features, Prunus mahaleb is still an obvious solution for intesive production. Increasing intensification can be obtained by use of modernisation of technological elements and suitable cultivar choice.
According to this increasement of intensity through application of novel technological elements (timing, manner and severity of pruning) and selection of the proper cultivar is implement able. Important differences are experienced between sweet cherry cultivars in their growth attributes, light demand and dynamics of fall back in regenerative potencial of different aged wood parts. From this point knowledge of the abow detailed is very important in order to maintain rentability of already established plantations. Our work shows the formation of production part in
9-year old plantation with spike spindle and free spindle crown forms depending on pruning timing (winter, summer) and determining of their various effects.
By applying smaller crown sizes and intensive growing techniques, many advantages can be identified compared to the extensive orchards. Also, nursing/pruning and harvest work can be performed more effectively. The outer and inner quality parameters of the fruit and the effectiveness of plant protection techniques are improved. The smaller crown... size enables us to apply technologies for ensuring yield safety (e.g. hail, rain, bird nets), resulting in an increase in productivity. The introduction of smaller trees poses a great challenge to cherry production. Trials with dwarfing rootstocks have not yet been successful, therefore, we must use the cv. Mahaleb rootstock, which is excellently adapted to the Hungarian conditions, and also has a stronger growth. In addition, rootstocks with such strong growth are needed for the necessary regeneration of the productive parts of cherry cultivars, there is a need for. At the research garden of the University of Debrecen in Pallag, we planted 21 cherry cultivars on cv. Mahaleb (CT500) rootstock, in a 4 m x 1 m spacing pattern, in the spring of 2000. In our study, we demonstrated the possibilities of developing and maintaining the string super spindle through repeated summer pruning, in terms of growth, bud and fruit formation,. Based on these parameters, we determined which cultivars are the most suitable for intensive production.
The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.
We made our study on fruit quality in the summer of 2005 on 6 cultivars („Bigarreau Burlat”, „Germersdorfi 3”, „Germersdorfi 45”, „Katalin”, „Linda” and „Van”) in a half-intensive sweet cherry orchard in Siófok. We measured fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and...total soluble solids content. There were large differences among cultivars in the datas. These differences are due to genetic fruit-characteristics, because all other conditions were the same. We harvested fruits by 3 cultivars two times to check their characteristics on two ripening phases. We examined on these cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. With these data we can be informed about the role of later than optimal harvesting time and how big an effect it has on fruit quality.
Fresh tart cherry consumption cannot be increased without the development of an appropriate technology for its elongated storage. This requires the development and optimization of the pre- and postharvest treatments. Currently, we have only limited knowledge about tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) postharvest technology, however, related studies...on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) may be adopted. In this article, we have collected the most important research results in this topic.
In our present study, we performed a quick test of the antioxidant capacity of domestic fruit and vegetable cultivars with a PHOTOCHEM® instrument (Analytik Jena AG, Germany). The instrument is special because it can measure both the total lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL method) and the total water-soluble antioxidant capacity. Another... advantage of the system is its quick measurement. With similar instruments, such measurement can take several hours, while PHOTOCHEM® can perform it within a few minutes.
In our model studies, we examined the changes in the antioxidant capacity of sour cherry, green pepper, carrot, pumpkin, red beet and Brassica sp. cultivars. We aimed to determine how suitable the instrument is for quick, routine measurements in the case of the different horticultural products and which species have high antioxidant capacity values.
On the basis of our examinations, we can state that the PHOTOCHEM® system is suitable for routine, semi-automated measurements of the total antioxidant capacity at several vegetables and fruits. Besides this, the system can be used for testing the quality of food products, for monitoring storability in post-harvest technologies, and for special breeding programmes and for physiological and biotechnological studies.
This study was focused on detection of the spectrum of fungi in the wood of stone fruits using molecular genetic methods. Samples were obtained from apricots, plums and sweet cherry trees from region of Moravia, one sample was obtained from Myjava (Slovakia). Segments of symptomatic wood were obtained from dying stone fruit trees with very sign...ificant symptoms. This study describes detection of the fungi in the wood of 11 trees in general in 5 localities. The cultivation of the fungi from symptomatic wood and sequencing of ITS was carried out. Eleven fungal genera were determined in the stone fruits wood, particularly Irpex lacteus, Fomes fomentarius, Neofabraea corticola, Calosphaeria pulchella, Cytospora leucostoma, Phellinus tuberculosus, Stereum hirsutum, Collophora sp., Pithomyces chartarum, Aureobasidium pullulans,Fusarium sp. The results of this study demonstrate that the reason of declining of stone fruit trees in Moravia is caused probably by trunk pathogens.