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  • Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in response to salinity stress

    Soil salinity is a severe and expanding soil degradation problem that affects 80 million ha of arable lands globally. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is very sensitive to saline conditions; the most susceptible genotypes may die in just 25 mM NaCl in hydroponics. Approximately 8–10% yield loss in chickpea production is estimated due to salinity stress. However, it is still not established why chickpea is so susceptible to salt affection. Salinity (NaCl) impedes germination of seeds, though chickpea varieties considerably differ from one another in this respect. Some chickpea genotypes are more tolerant in the stage of germination, tolerating even 320 mM NaCl. The reasons of this variation are unrevealed; there is a shortage of knowledge about the germination abilities of chickpea genotypes in saline conditions. Nevertheless, the effect of salt stress on vegetative growth can be analysed in hydroponics, in pot or field conditions, regardless the experimental environment, the ranking of genotypes regarding salt resistance is coherent. Chickpea genotypes can be different in their ability to retain water, maybe under salt affection; the more salt tolerant lines can maintain higher water content in the shoots, while the more sensitive ones cannot. The identification of salt tolerant chickpea landraces based on developing genetic variability is a suitable strategy to combat against salinity problems arising in arid and semi-arid areas.

  • Investigation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Salt Tolerance and Callus Induction in vitro

    Potato production plays an important role in Hungary and the other countries of Europe. Consumption of potato products has increased to a large extent during the past several years. We can satisfy market demands with high quality and virus-free varieties.
    Results of potato production depend on tolerance/resistance to abiotic stresses. In many cases, increased concentration of NaCl causes yield loss. Selection of salt tolerant varieties proved to be a difficult problem. Nowadays, the salt tolerance of potato varieties can be determined by cell/tissue/ protoplast techniques. Somaclonal variation provides a great potential for selection of lines resistant to salt stress. In vitro shoots and callus, derived plantlets selected for salt tolerance/resistance provide material for micropropagation.
    In vitro shoot development of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kuroda) was investigated under salt stress (40 mM, 80 mM, 120 mM NaCl) conditions. Shoot heights of plantlets cultured under salt conditions were lower than the control through the investigation. However, the shoot development of plantlets originated from in vitro meristems was almost at the same level as the control under 40 mM NaCl concentration.
    There was no significant difference in the in vitro biomass production between control and treatment with 40 mM NaCl concentration. We measured a significant decrease in dry-matter mass under 120 mM NaCl concentration. There is a need for more investigation of different genotypes and for a conclusion as to whether in vitro tolerance could occur under in vivo circumstances in plants originated from somaclones as well.
    Under in vitro conditions, we investigated shoot and leaf callus initiation using different culture media with different 2,4-D concentrations. Under dark conditions, callus induction of shoot/leaf decreased as the 2,4-D concentrations increased.
    In light conditions, there was a little callus induction, while callus initiation from the shoot from 5 μM to 12 μM 2,4-D concentration showed a significant increase

  • Exogenous salicylic acid treatments enhance tolerance to salinity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plantlets

    Salt stress, an abiotic stress, determines modifications of some biochemical indicators, like, antioxidant enzymes, proline (amino acid
    accumulate in higher plants under salinity stress) content, and some physiological processes including: plant growth and development. In
    this paper we studied the influence of exogenous treatment of wheat seeds, with 0.1 mM salicylic acid (SA) solution, in the plant response to
    salt stress. The treatment was applied by presoaking the seeds in the treatment solution for 12 hours before germination. The results showed
    that exogenous 0.1 mM SA solution, administrated to the wheat cariopses significantly ameliorated the negative effect of salt stress in first
    week of germination in laboratory conditions.

  • Behavior of some Hungarian wheat varieties to seed soaking in gibberellic acid under salt stress

    Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity stress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.

  • Screening of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties resistant to NaCl salt stress

    Salinity stress is one of the environmental factors that negatively affect the growth and production of pepper plants. The 100 seeds' weight was measured. The total fresh weight of five seedlings and the growth rate of one seedling of three paprika varieties were also measured under the influence of NaCl at a salinity level threshold of (3 dS m‑1). The proportion of tissue water content in three pepper cultivars was measured according to a mathematical formula at the end of the experiment. In terms of seed weight, the (Carma) cultivar outperformed other types greatly. Except for the superiority of both (Carma, and Bobita F1) over (Fokusz) variety in total fresh seedlings weight under sodium chloride as abiotic stress, there are no significant differences in the total seedlings' dry weight and the rate of seedling growth. The non-drought-resistant type (Bobita F1) loses water the fastest, at 89.61%, compared to drought-tolerant kinds, which lose water at a slower rate (Carma, and Fokusz). The results demonstrate the (Carma) variety's numerical vigor, particularly in the growth rate. More testing is needed to determine the selection of varieties that are resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  • Effect of arginine, putrescine and spermidine on the polyamine, proline and chlorophyll content of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    Polyamines, such as spermidine (Spd) spermine (Spm) and their direct precursor, the diamine putrescine (Put) are vital and essential aliphatic amines which are also present in plants. Although ethylene and polyamines are also involved in fruit ripening, the genes coding them must also take part in other biosynthetic pathways. In the ethylene and polyamines play an important role in development of salt stress tolerance, and in responses for biotic and abiotic stresses. Exogenous application of all three main polyamines (Put, Spd, Spm) increase salt tolerance of plants, but, accordingly to previous experiments, spermidine has the main effect on the enhancement of salt tolerance. Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were grown in vitro on MS medium, the treatments were as follows: arginine (150 mg l-1), putrescine (10 mg l-1), spermidine (10
    mg l-1). Proline, chlorophyll a, b and polyamine contents were measured. The obtained results show that the arginine decarboxylase and the spermidine synthase genes involved in polyamine metabolism, cannot be enhanced by exogenous addition of their precursor molecules. On the contrary, the spermine synthase gene has a positive effect to the lower-class forms of polyamines.