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Previous data on the relationship between the intensity of pruning and the degree of damage in integrated and organic applegrowing systems
Published May 27, 2001
47-52

In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally friendly growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. Vital is the establishment of a strengthened system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection in production technology. Consequently, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and p...ests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leucoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under „strong” and „weak” pruning techniques. Our results on six cultivars showed that the pathogens and pests infested the trees more in the organic system, as compared to that of integrated production. The pruning technique affected mainly the susceptible
cultivars to diseases and pests. The „weak” pruning technique caused a higher level of diseases and pests infestations than the „strong” pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The likely reason is that the shoots grow fast and powerfully under “strong” pruning technique. This supports better preservation of the trees supported by susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.

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Optimising intensive apple crown pruning by IT improvements
Published September 5, 2018
165-173

Prunig is a key element of fruit production technology and is affected by a number of subjective factors. Putting research findings into practice is often hindered by bad and harmful habits that make plantations and trees heterogenious in terms of growth and fruiting features, which can even lead to significant financial losses. Having identifi...ed this challenge, in this publication we aim to present some guidelines for those who are open to new ways and believe in the power of innovation. The 21st century is undoubtedly the century of unstoppable IT innovations filtering through into our everyday lives. The fact that our project is based on IT innovations is not only essential due to the subject matter itself but also because it makes it easier to address younger generations. Whichever tool they choose to use (smartphone, tablet, laptop), all registered students have access to our web contents, making it super easy for them to practice pruning techniques. Students don’t just read texts in our training materials but have access to a pool of pictures and images to illustrate the different procecces and phenomena. All the different phrases have explanations against them, so anyone can understand the ins and outs of why and how to prune or remove the different crown parts (5-year-old and above crown parts, 2–4-year old parts or 1-year-old parts) to achieve specific results, whether it be apple, pear or cherry trees etc. Our database comprises thousands of pictures that will walk you through the entire fruit tree pruning process, without you even having to leave your desk. There is an old proverb that also applies to pruning: „The wise man learns from the mistakes of others, the fool has to learn from his own”. Our program aims to help students by presenting a number of bad examples along with their corrections as well as photos of ideal ways to prune multiple different crown shapes. Using our web-based tool eliminates time and space limitations, i.e. you can access our interactive contents to gain or extend your pruning skills, irrespective of the pruning time and location.

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Evaluation of harvesting technology of vineyard pruning based on a Mátra wine region case study
Published April 8, 2014
91-100

Wineyard pruning utilization for energy purpose is not only a theoretical possibility, the machine background has also been developed. Economic- and environmental experimentations has made by specialists and they seek to developed the best practice in logistics suitable for local conditions and they propagate the results for the potential users.... Nevertheless, the utilization does not seem to be typical in Hungary and some other wine-grower countries. For example, in Hungary the additional energy from vineyard pruning eventuates – tillage, nutrient supply; – phy+tosanitary, environmental pollution; – energy management and economic questions.

In Hungary the most important problem is practice of the vineyard pruning utilization were mentioned by the users is the establishment of collection system and the high logistic costs as Marczinkó (2007) experiences confirm this. As I experienced in practice, the winegrowers are uninterested in utilization. Most of them burn it at the end of the vineyard in many cases without considering of the relevant statutory prohibition.

As my own several years expriment shows at Mátra wine region it is not the technical background which causes the failure. We can use effectively balers or chippers for collection. The cost of chipping is 14 535–27 000 Ft per hectars with the introduced technologies on Mátra wine region. The cost of 1 GJ of heat production is 606–1125 Ft. We can substitute the fuel with vineyard pruning and it means approximately 115 000 Ft saving for a family household per year.

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Estimation of the vine-shoot yield in the Gyöngyös district
Published August 12, 2013
21-26

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Every year, a significant amount of vineyard prunings is generated in Hungary. Instead of utilization them, it is burned directly on the field in spite of the limitations of legalization highly pollute the environment in recent decades. The vineyard pruning itself or with other by-products from pomology and forestry can be significant amount of fuel source. However, before the planning to utilization the essential task is to estimate the potential. This study examine that how many vineyard is generated in the micro-region of Gyöngyös in every year on appointed vineyard.

In order to vine-branch potential calculate more accurate data was necessary so the products had to be determined for all plant. Thus, the biomass resource and the utilization become plannable. As the result of the experiment we can estimate that 1,5 t/ha vineyard pruning are generated. It means more than 9 thousand tons pruning in the micro-region of Gyöngyös. This amount can be convert into fuel source more than 150 thousand GJ heating value.

The results evince that the vineyard pruning is important fuel source in every year in the micro-region of Gyöngyös. Further usage is suggested for other regions in other size.

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Correlation of pruning time and fruiting part differentiation of sweet cherry cultivars
Published December 15, 2010
131-134

There are several extended studies in sweet cherry production in Hungary and all over the world i.e. for creation and maintainence of smaller tree crown and high density orchards. The use of suitable dwarf rootstocks for this fruit species are very limited. On one hand, most of the draf rootstocks do not cause enough growth reduction and on the... other hand these rootstocks are get old very quikcly and their fruits become small, and therefore, they not serve the requirements for intensification. In summary, there is a need for those rootstock which are vital, regeneration enhanching and delay ageing. Due to ensuring above features, Prunus mahaleb is still an obvious solution for intesive production. Increasing intensification can be obtained by use of modernisation of technological elements and suitable cultivar choice. 
According to this increasement of intensity through application of novel technological elements (timing, manner and severity of pruning) and selection of the proper cultivar is implement able. Important differences are experienced between sweet cherry cultivars in their growth attributes, light demand and dynamics of fall back in regenerative potencial of different aged wood parts. From this point knowledge of the abow detailed is very important in order to maintain rentability of already established plantations. Our work shows the formation of production part in
9-year old plantation with spike spindle and free spindle crown forms depending on pruning timing (winter, summer) and determining of their various effects. 

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Correlations Between the Crown Sizes, Pruning Times and Fruit Quality of Sour Cherry Cultivars
Published December 6, 2005
90-94

To increase the intensiveness of sour cherry production, i.e. the use of smaller trees, it is necessary to adopt growth-moderating techniques rather than using dwarfing rootstocks. Apart from the traditional technique of using rootstocks that support stronger growth, new or rarely-used techniques and methods must be adopted. Pruning should be c...arried out in the summer rather than in the winter, the optimal period being 1-3 weeks after harvest.
A combination of the increase in favourable exposure-time and smaller crown sizes make higher tree densities (tree/ha) and better utilisation of the crown (specific cropload) possible.
The systematic use of summer pruning leads to better quality fruit.

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Possibilities of downsizing sweet cherry trees via growing techniques
Published September 14, 2005
71-74

By applying smaller crown sizes and intensive growing techniques, many advantages can be identified compared to the extensive orchards. Also, nursing/pruning and harvest work can be performed more effectively. The outer and inner quality parameters of the fruit and the effectiveness of plant protection techniques are improved. The smaller crown... size enables us to apply technologies for ensuring yield safety (e.g. hail, rain, bird nets), resulting in an increase in productivity. The introduction of smaller trees poses a great challenge to cherry production. Trials with dwarfing rootstocks have not yet been successful, therefore, we must use the cv. Mahaleb rootstock, which is excellently adapted to the Hungarian conditions, and also has a stronger growth. In addition, rootstocks with such strong growth are needed for the necessary regeneration of the productive parts of cherry cultivars, there is a need for. At the research garden of the University of Debrecen in Pallag, we planted 21 cherry cultivars on cv. Mahaleb (CT500) rootstock, in a 4 m x 1 m spacing pattern, in the spring of 2000. In our study, we demonstrated the possibilities of developing and maintaining the string super spindle through repeated summer pruning, in terms of growth, bud and fruit formation,. Based on these parameters, we determined which cultivars are the most suitable for intensive production.

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Viticulture of Hungary
Published September 5, 2018
175-182

For several thousand years, vine has been grown in the Carpathian basin, where the climatic and soil conditions are favourable for viticulture. During this long period, vine growing has been developing until it reached its current niveau. We grow propagation material, table grape and wine grape. The produced wine grape varieties are grown on th...e largest area, of which 72% is white wine and 25% is red wine. Only 3% remains for table grapes. The surface of vineyards is about 63 000 ha, which can be found in 22 wine regions. The biodiversity of vine is very rich in our country. There are a lot of native and valuable bred varieties and clones in cultivation. The resistant and winter frost resistant vine varieties have an important role in our continental climate. The in 75% of the vineyards is on hills and mountains, 25% of them is on the Great Hungarian Plain. High cordon with cane pruning dominates the training and pruning system.

Unfortunately, vine stocks suffer from a lot of diseases and by using pesticides we pollute the nature. Viticulturists in Hungary produce excellent raw material and provide oenologists with them who make wine of excellent quality.

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Young-making of sour cherry cultivars and examination of their regenerative characteristics
Published May 23, 2006
102-105

Although a high portion of domestic orchards is cultivated extensively, quality Hungarian sour cherry is a highly demanded product throughout Europe. Trees are slightly pruned, or not pruned at all. Thanks to the unique character of the species, older wood parts are pilling up. Thus, the interior of the canopy is inactive, fruits and shoots con...fine the exterior layer of the canopy.
We established pruning treatments in the sour cherry plantation in the Horticultural Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, involving two age groups in two spacings. The trees are standing on seedling rootstock. The involved varieties were: Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő and Kántorjánosi. We examined how to encourage shoot formation and the regeneration of older, pilling wood of the interior canopy parts.
Applying strong rejuvenating cuts, the most shoots were generated on the 3rd and 4th year laterals. Wood parts older than the 3rd year shall be removed by leaving short (2-3cm) stubs. This way, older, passive woodparts can also be made to burst out. From the examined varieties the Kántorjánosi showed the most favourable regenerative ability. Due to summer pruning, more shoots regenerated on the axis of the trees, than on those rejuvenated in the dormant season.

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The Role and Importance of Variety in Intensive Cherry Production
Published May 4, 2004
81-84

Increasing the intensity of plantations is a basic precondition for the renewal of fruit growing in Hungary.
The intensification of production of stone-fruit species is difficult for several reasons. In particular, knowledge of dwarfing rootstock is very limited. In this study, we tried to achieve smaller-sized, intensive crown formation by ...co-ordinating the date and degree of pruning.
In intensive cherry production, the most important variety-dependent characters determining the formation of the required productive surface are vigour of growth, branching potential and quantity and quality of the buds.
In this paper we have demonstrated that significant differences exist between varieties in these characters.

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Comparison of Integrated and Conventional Production of Young Nonbearing Apple Orchards
Published December 14, 2004
3-5

The large number of pesticide applications in apple orchards creates serious problems with pesticide residues and their side effects on beneficial organisms, the environment and human health. This is the reason behind the search for new systems for apple protection.
The investigations were made in apple orchards of the Institute of Agricultu...re at Kyustendil, during the period from 1997-1999. Three scab resistant cultivars grafted on rootstocks MM106 were planted in 1996. The orchard was divided into four plots. Two plots were treated as „conventionally” and the other two were treated as „integrated” according to the general principles, rules and standards of integrated apple production.
The key disease during the experimental period was powdery mildew, which can be controlled only with pruning of infected clusters and shoots during the first three years after planting. The key pests in the orchard during the nonbearing period were the green apple aphid and San Jose scale. In the integrated plant protection system, it is possible to reduce the number of insecticide treatments depending on the density of the main pests.

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Comparative analisis of different canopy forms of sweet cherry cultivars
Published March 11, 2014
19-22

The Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed significantly in the last decades, which primarily resulted in growing intensity of the orchards. Due to the favourable selling prices of the sweet cherry many growers see good prospects in this fruit. One of the key questions of their success is the choice of the most proper canopy form ac...cording to the growing conditions, which facilities the efficient completion of annual technological operations.

In new orchards almost exclusively variations of spindle canopies are established, although many other crown forms are used all over the world. From the point of the domestic sweet cherry production it is indispensable to get information about these canopies, and compare with the prevailing crown forms with central axis.

In our experiment we compared free spindle and bush canopies in the Horticultural Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen in 2013. According to our results it can be stated that the bush canopy can be described with more balanced growth, which makes easier to maintain the vegetative and generative balance. Another positive characteristic of the bush canopy is, that the height of the trees is smaller with 50% compared with the free spindle, which makes the pruning and the harvest easier.

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Economicalness of self-propelled work platforms in superintensive apple plantations
Published February 18, 2016
91-98

The main goal of this study was to determine whether the use of work platforms in super intensive apple orchards in order to reduce production costs and enhance work area performance under Hungarian circumstances an economic investment is. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from ...apple producing businesses. The results show that work platforms have remarkable economic advantage in case of operations with high machine work expenditures or where they significantly improve the area performance of manual labour. The former was due to the much lower operating costs of work platforms compared to tractors, while the latter comes clear from reduction of manual labour input per hectare. The greatest economic advantage of work platforms occurs in case of harvesting and pruning, but in case of other operations they have no significant cost advantage. They main economic disadvantage is, however, that apple breaks more when harvesting with work platforms, i.e. picking quality deteriorates significantly. It can be concluded, that purchase of work platforms cannot be considered economic investment under Hungarian circumstances. It might be economic, utilised on maximum area (ca. 30 hectares) by certain companies in special cases, but in most cases has no favourable payback conditions.

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The effect of the dates of shoot selection and shoot tip removal on the growth of William’s pear trees
Published September 14, 2005
65-70

Increasing the intensity of production in the case of pear can be the solution to satisfy the market demand forr high-quality fruit. The aims in this technology are the canopy treatments and the maintainance of consistently high quality yields in the long run. The experiments were performed with cv. William’s pear, a cultivar grown on large a...reas in Hungary. To create the optimal canopy shape for earlier fruiting, we performed shoot selection and the cutting back of shoot tips. Our results show, that both pruning methods – applied at 3 different dates – decreased the number of short fruiting parts (spurs), and increased the number of vegetative shoots. The sole exception was from this the effect of shoot tip removal when done at the earliest date.

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Effect of the dry and rainy weather on the Idared and Golden Reinders apple varieties fruit quality
Published October 5, 2010
107-110

Weather conditions have an important role in fruit production. In the last few decades, this role is increased and basically determines the
fruit quality and quantity. Despite of this statement, there is but very few information about impacts caused by weather anomalies in
Hungarian orchards. Regarding this, the relation between the exter...nal, and internal values of the Idared and Golden Reinders apple varieties,
the changing of the temperature and precipitation in a dry year (2009) as well as in a rainy year (2010) were investigated. The examined
apple varieties are grown at the same training system (rootstock, spacing, training, pruning system). The average weight, average diameter,
acid content and soluble solids were higher in 2009 than in 2010, although the precipitation was higher in 2010. Due to the many rainy days
the intensity of sunshine and the number of sunny days were less. To produce better quality it is very important the amount of the sunshine
and heat, the optimal temperature and the precipitation rate.

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