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  • Investigation of the impacts of the by-product of sewage treatment on some characteristics of maize in the early growth stage

    The use of sewage sludge on arable land has been widespread for many years. This by-product, treated as waste, can provide valuable nutrients to the soil, but the applied amount of sewage sludge to arable land is limited. The possibility of application of sewage sludge is essentially determined by the composition of the sludge. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate that the physiological, morphological, and biochemical parameters of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Armagnac) linearly change with increasing concentrations of sewage sludge (25%, 50%, and 75% as m/m%). The experiment was set up in a glasshouse. The following parameters were investigated: plant height, relative chlorophyll content, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoids), and leaf proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and PS II quantum efficiency in the 3-leaf stages of the plants. Sewage sludge applied in lower doses had a beneficial effect on the initial growth of maize. The relative chlorophyll content was significantly higher in all treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference in the maximum quantum efficiency of PS II reaction centers among the treatments. In this experiment, different concentrations of sewage sludge treatments had different impacts on the MDA and proline content of maize leaves. The proline content was significantly higher in all treatments, while the MDA content did not change significantly compared to the control.

  • Behavior of some Hungarian wheat varieties to seed soaking in gibberellic acid under salt stress

    Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity stress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.

  • Comparison of quality parameters of producers' and commercial honeys

    Honey is our essential food since ancient times. In Hungary about 25 000 tons of honey are produced each year, and most of the product (80%) is exported. Hungarian honeys have excellent quality but because of scandals of honey adulteration the interest and recognition may decrease. Therefore we must elaborate a method with which the establishment of adulteration is simple and cheap. In this study we concentrate on simple quality parameters which inspection is not elaborate. These parameters for example sugar- and moisture contains, proline content, electrical
    conductivity, element content, pH, HMF content, degree of acidity. We examined these parameters in producers’ and commercial samples. We succeed fund parameters which characteristic of one type of honey thus we have possibility identify of honey type. For example the proline content was very low in the producers’ linden honey (mean 126 mg/kg). This value is lower than the regulation, but in case of commercial linden honey this parameter is higher than regulation. According to electrical conductivity and Potassium content is provable the type of linden honey.

  • Exogenous salicylic acid treatments enhance tolerance to salinity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plantlets

    Salt stress, an abiotic stress, determines modifications of some biochemical indicators, like, antioxidant enzymes, proline (amino acid
    accumulate in higher plants under salinity stress) content, and some physiological processes including: plant growth and development. In
    this paper we studied the influence of exogenous treatment of wheat seeds, with 0.1 mM salicylic acid (SA) solution, in the plant response to
    salt stress. The treatment was applied by presoaking the seeds in the treatment solution for 12 hours before germination. The results showed
    that exogenous 0.1 mM SA solution, administrated to the wheat cariopses significantly ameliorated the negative effect of salt stress in first
    week of germination in laboratory conditions.

  • Water relations composition among Egyptian cotton genotypes under water deficit

    Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadense L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.

  • Effect of arginine, putrescine and spermidine on the polyamine, proline and chlorophyll content of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    Polyamines, such as spermidine (Spd) spermine (Spm) and their direct precursor, the diamine putrescine (Put) are vital and essential aliphatic amines which are also present in plants. Although ethylene and polyamines are also involved in fruit ripening, the genes coding them must also take part in other biosynthetic pathways. In the ethylene and polyamines play an important role in development of salt stress tolerance, and in responses for biotic and abiotic stresses. Exogenous application of all three main polyamines (Put, Spd, Spm) increase salt tolerance of plants, but, accordingly to previous experiments, spermidine has the main effect on the enhancement of salt tolerance. Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were grown in vitro on MS medium, the treatments were as follows: arginine (150 mg l-1), putrescine (10 mg l-1), spermidine (10
    mg l-1). Proline, chlorophyll a, b and polyamine contents were measured. The obtained results show that the arginine decarboxylase and the spermidine synthase genes involved in polyamine metabolism, cannot be enhanced by exogenous addition of their precursor molecules. On the contrary, the spermine synthase gene has a positive effect to the lower-class forms of polyamines.

  • Comparative study of special honey products and herbhoneys
    Honey has a positive effect on human body due to its high content of biologically active substances (e.g. monosaccharides, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, polyphenolic compounds). The properties of honey depend on its botanical origin due to the bioactive plant components, mainly secondary metabolites that are included in honey made by bees from nectar. Herbally infused honeys are delicious products that combine the therapeutic action of herbs and honey. Additionally, herbs can provide nutrient fortified syrup for honey bees and protect them against diseases and other ecological threats.
    The aim of this study was to define the physicochemical properties of multifloral honey, herb enriched natural honey and herbhoney samples. We measured the moisture content, pH value, electrical conductivity and proline content. Although great diversity was observed in the basic properties of the examined products. In our study, we found that the electrical conductivity shows the significant differ between the groups. All the samples, including the herbhoneys passes the quality standards of honeys.
  • Comparative study of honeys and herbhoneys quality paramertes

    Honey is one of the oldest known and consumed food. Besides the pleasant sweet taste it has been consumed because of the favorable health benefits. In addition to large number of honey plants there are many popular herbals which cannot serve as a nectar source. The herbhoney has been developed that consumers can joy the pleasant properties of herbals and honeys positive impact on the same product. In our research we compare the quality parameters of honeys and herbhoneys to each other and with the relevant regulation.