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Data supporting the quality of sheep milk for processing
Published September 7, 2001
67-73

Although the volume of ingredients in ewe’s milk is substantially higher than in cow’s milk, its hygienic quality is lower. The weak quality of raw ewe’s milk limits the possibilities of processing and results in bad quality products. In our investigation we analysed the state of ewe’s milk processing at a typical medium size dairy firm.... We investigated the collection, the amount and the quality of milk and the level of ingredients in milk throughout the purchasing period (lactation period).
The purchasing of ewe’s milk was limited to 5 months (from April to September). Although meat (lamb) provides the major source of income to sheep breeders the extension of the period of ewe’s milk production can be beneficial to shepherds and dairy firms. The amount of ewe’s milk ingredients found corresponded to published findings. However, the hygienic quality of ewe’s milk was varied greatly in the different milk samples and these deviations meant bad quality on average. Physiological factors, the circumstances of sheep breeding and milking, the slow cooling of the milk, the little amount of daily milk and the long storage before transportation to the dairy firm together cause poor hygienic quality. The main problem is the long storage time of milk, but our results raise the question of reconsidering the quality classes. Investigating the effect of the hygienic quality of raw milk on product quality, we can get correct data that can be really authoritative.

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The relationship between gluten proteins and baking quality
Published July 31, 2012
117-122

Wheat, one of the most important cereals, is grown on the largest area in Hungary. During hydration of storage proteins of wheat – gliadin and glutenin – the gluten complex is evolved. The gliadin is responsible for the extensibility of gluten complex as well as the glutenin for the strength of gluten. The structure, composition and rheolog...ical properties of gluten proteins influence significantly the baking quality. The gliadin/glutenin ratio and the quality and structure of glutenin fraction play the most important role in evolving gluten complex. Changes in the steps of breadmaking technology also have effect on the quality of product. Several tests proved that the higher glutenin content increases the strength of dough while the higher gliadin content increases the extensibility of dough and decreases maximum resistance to extension. The monomer gliadins play a great part in plasticity of glutenin polymer. The quality of glutenin fraction significantly influences the evolving gluten complex, because of the spiral structure of glutenin which deforms under stress conditions, then the β-spiral structure resumes their original conformation by releasing from stress.
The final quality of product evolves as a result of complex characteristics of wheat proteins, so detailed knowledge on the roles of different protein compounds is the base of the quality oriented product development.

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Comparison of supplier quality assurance methods for compound feed manufacturing from efficiency, product consistency and economical point of view
Published December 15, 2010
29-34

Feed manufacturing and human food production are the main routes of use for agricultural products. The food industryparticularly has intensively implemented the recent quality management principles and developed systems that facilitate the continuous improvement and efficiency of the industrial production. Feed production has taken similar appr...oaches however the intensity of deployment at the manufacturer and the rollout towards its supply chain has shown slower progress. The methods, that the feed manufacturer manages the supplier chain of mainly primer agricultural products according to, have a certain impact on the efficiency of the inbound operations, feed product quality and its consistency as well as on other resources. These methods have been built on sound quality management principles that are stated not only in quality standards but also in relevant regulations. Current study addresses the questions related to the link between supply chain quality management and feed product. The objective of the frontier research was to highlight the  theoretical possibilities and benefits of the robust design methodimplemented into animal feed manufacturing dealing with highly variable ingredients. 

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Application of the SDS-PAGE method for the characterisation of winter wheat flour quality
Published May 23, 2006
112-118

The principle, development and importance of the SDS-PAGE method are presented in this article. The SDS-PAGE method has become one of the basic methods of molecular biological research, because it is widely applicable and its sensitivity is excellent in the separation of wheat storage proteins.
We have shown the application of this method wi...th a concrete example. It was also tested whether, it was possible to obtain a better baking quality product from a large amount of poor quality less valuable wheat by fractioning the flour according to particle sizes after grinding. We studied the rheological properties of flours with different particle size fractions from the original flour. The baking quality of the original flour was B2. The 125-90 and 90-63 μm fractions have significantly better baking quality (B1) than the original flour. The protein contents of these flour fractions were also significantly higher than the protein content of the original flour. We had a question: what has influenced the baking quality: the protein content or other factors? We searched for an explanation on these results in the protein composition of the flour samples. We studied the distribution of glutenin-fractions by SDS-PAGE method and evaluated them. We found with correlation analysis that the amount of LMW-Glutenin D-group (52-60 kDa) is in a strong, negative correlation to the baking quality (r = – 0.855*). Therefore, the baking quality of flour samples was influenced by this glutenin fraction.

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Improved soil and tomato quality by some biofertilizer products
Published September 5, 2018
93-105

The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality para...meters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.

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The Relationship Between the Moisture Content of Sweetcorn Raw Material and the Quality of the Deep-Frozen End Product
Published May 11, 2003
135-139

One of the remarkable effects of the economical and social development is the changing of the eating habits, first of all increasing consumption of deep-frozen products. The spreading of the sweet corn under these vegetables is characteristic.
The parameters exerting influence on the quality of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is classed in 3 catego...ries:
• Physical quality: foreign matter, clumps, blemished corn, broken kernel, miscut, pulled kernel.
• Organoleptical features: taste, colour, texture, and sweetness.
• Microbiological features: TVC, mould, yeast.
The moisture content of the raw material influences the organoleptical features to the highest degree.
We take continuously samples from the raw material arriving in to the factory to determinate moisture content, and from the product to specify the organoleptical features.
Based on the data of 2002 we can make the following findings:
The colour of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is less influenced by the moisture content. The taste is between 69% and 72% the most optimal, but over 72% get worse, more „milky”, water-tasted because of the underdevelopment of sweetcorn. The texture continuously becomes better with the increasing of moisture content. Under 67% of water the class „C” is typical, which means a taste with weak charasteric, a bit scathing or bitter, and texture with rubbery inner part and hard pericarpia. The decadence of taste is caused by converting a great part of sugar into starch.
The correlation between moisture and quality is varying by varieties; different varieties have their best quality by different moisture content. By our investigations the best harvest time is at the 69-72% moisture content. At this point are the organoleptical features the most optimal, and the grower has not the loss of yield caused by early harvesting.

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Realisation of customer focus from quality and forage safety aspects in the Hungarian mixed feed production
Published March 11, 2014
35-38

Customer focus is one of the main principles of Total Quality Management, and it is inevitable for long term, mutually successful vendorcustomer partnerships. The strictly controlled quality management systems of animal feed industry ensure that product quality meets the expectations of all parties involved and, indirectly the reliability of hu...man food raw materials. Meanwhile, the participants of agricultural production are variably quality conscious, so feed manufacturers support their supply chain and also their customers with professional background and they play a key role in safe food chains from farm to fork.

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The effect of herbs on the microbiological stability and nutritional quality of pariser
Published May 20, 2020
101-104

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of dried herbs (Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Salvia officinalis L.) to improve the quality characteristics and microbiological stability of Hungarian meat product, pariser. The addition of herbs did not affect the microbial properties of the product. According t...o the Decree No. 4 of 1998 of the Ministry of Health, pariser can be considered safe. The nutritional quality of the different forms of pariser was also acceptable. However, the addition of oregano, sage and thyme changed the flavor characteristics of the parisers and the higher meat content would increase the final price of the product.

 

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Testing laboratory parameters of compost tea
Published December 28, 2018
31-36

During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.

Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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A study of product strategy priorities at the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region
Published June 5, 2009
55-64

Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can... be characterised with certain strategic
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.

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Presentation of sales price reserves for live lamb
Published September 2, 2009
37-45

Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms  “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income. 

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Comparison of quality parameters of producers' and commercial honeys
Published November 2, 2009
31-39

Honey is our essential food since ancient times. In Hungary about 25 000 tons of honey are produced each year, and most of the product (80%) is exported. Hungarian honeys have excellent quality but because of scandals of honey adulteration the interest and recognition may decrease. Therefore we must elaborate a method with which the establishme...nt of adulteration is simple and cheap. In this study we concentrate on simple quality parameters which inspection is not elaborate. These parameters for example sugar- and moisture contains, proline content, electrical
conductivity, element content, pH, HMF content, degree of acidity. We examined these parameters in producers’ and commercial samples. We succeed fund parameters which characteristic of one type of honey thus we have possibility identify of honey type. For example the proline content was very low in the producers’ linden honey (mean 126 mg/kg). This value is lower than the regulation, but in case of commercial linden honey this parameter is higher than regulation. According to electrical conductivity and Potassium content is provable the type of linden honey.

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Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
181-187

The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

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Effect of Storage on Fruitquality of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca)
Published December 6, 2005
164-169

The quality of a product is determined by numerous characteristics. As quality characteristics are polygenic, they cannot be improved easily. Moreover, there often is a negative correlation between the different parameters in the case of apricot. The firmness of fruits decreases with increasing size. The year effect also has a great influence o...n the expression of the potential quality of the given cultivar.
Our examinations were carried out in 2004 at Boldogkőváralja, in the cold storage plant of the Northcot Ltd. We monitored the development of fruits from fructification until harvest, and also the quality changes during storage. 100 fruits were observed from each cultivar directly after harvest. We measured height, width, weight, firmness, dry matter content and seed weight. From each cultivar, 100 fruits were stored, of which 25 fruits were observed each week. The value and the dynamics of the changes in the parameters compared to the values at harvest varied greatly for the different cultivars. Strong correlations between the parameters have not been found within one cultivar either. The heavier fruits did not lose more weight, either in absolute value or relatively, than the lighter fruits. The increase in the firmness of fruits was not accompanied with a desirable decrease in the dry matter content.

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The parameters of homemade jams after storage
Published March 11, 2014
39-42

Nowadays producing jams is considered a traditional way of plum processing in Hungary. Plum jams without added sugar can be stored

This research aimed to analytically determine which quality parameters of the jams and to what extent they change during storage. Furthermore, this study intended to find out whether a concious consumer can ...presume any difference between varieties or the year of harvest, or wheather a one-time customer should suspect differences in quality parameters of the different products. This study focused on those differences or alterations in the parameters that occur in the jams made from several different plum varieties produced in different years.

I analyzed the classic chemical parameters (dry matter content and ash content) and physiologically important nutritional components (phenolic and flavonoids antioxidants and vitamin C). In this research I used jams which were produced from 6 varieties grown in 2009 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley), 4 varieties from 2010 (President, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta) and 6 varieties from 2011 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley). Jams were produced with traditional technology in cauldrons without added sugar. Jars were placed into a relatively dark and cool place and were stored there until the analysis.

Having regard to the results, when consumers choose between the different products they also choose quality since the processed plum variety, and the year of production/processing determine the nutritional value of the specific product. This could be used for market positioning and promotion of the product, however further research is needed to gain more information from the differences that derive from the varieties, year of harvest or other factors. This way fruit and jam producers could turn these informations into market advantage.

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Regional Development Differences in Hungary and the Northern-Great Plain Region
Published March 4, 2005
62-71

The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member... state, will get a new chance for underdeveloped regions, especially for the Eastern-Hungarian as well as the North Hungarian and North Plain Region.
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.

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Modern Food Safety and Product Identification
Published December 6, 2005
339-345

In the beginning of the 21st century the matter of food safety plays an accentuated role in the food industry. Important issues in this topic are the risk of bioterrorism, impurities in the food chain and the ascendancy of customer needs. The solutions of these problems are the introduction of modern quality assurance systems, traceability and ...identification of products. I review in this paper the possibilities of these systems, the potential advantages and incidental costs. In the tight frame of this paper – omitting the descriptions of technologies – I discuss the most important criterions of systems, which may be able to solve today’s quality food industry problems.

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Differences in Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
170-180

An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.

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Comparative study of honeys and herbhoneys quality paramertes
Published May 16, 2017
117-120

Honey is one of the oldest known and consumed food. Besides the pleasant sweet taste it has been consumed because of the favorable health benefits. In addition to large number of honey plants there are many popular herbals which cannot serve as a nectar source. The herbhoney has been developed that consumers can joy the pleasant properties of h...erbals and honeys positive impact on the same product. In our research we compare the quality parameters of honeys and herbhoneys to each other and with the relevant regulation.

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Examination of physical properties of final product and drying properties of combined (convective pre-drying and freeze finish-drying) dehydration method
Published March 11, 2014
5-12

In this study, the effects of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (HAD) and combined drying (HAD-FD) on drying characteristics, energy uptake, texture, rehydration and color of carrot were investigated. Results showed that HAD-FD significantly improved the drying time compared with FD under the same operating conditions, and the HAD-FD can reduc...e the total cost of dehydration. The drying kinetics was described by the Henderson-Pabis and the third degree polynomial models in the case of HAD, FD and HAD-FD. The HAD carrot samples were exhibited shrinkage, case hardening, poor rehydration and brown surface. The FD carrot cubes appeared porous structure, excellent rehydration, soft texture and loose color. The HAD-FD samples were superior to HAD products and was nearer in quality to FD products with respect to appearance, rehydration and surface resistance (texture). Finally, it is concluded that HAD-FD is effective in improving the FD drying rate. However, the combined drying has a small-scale adverse effect on product quality.

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The examination of the profit-making capacity of the wooden chip-based large-scale product path
Published March 5, 2015
21-26

Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of t...he forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.

One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.

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Product orientated sewage sludge composting technologies in the practice of AKSD Ltd.
Published October 10, 2008
33-36

In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.

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Effects of Site on Winter Wheat Quality 2002/2003
Published October 3, 2019
100-107

The demand of modern societies for high food quality is evident. Thus, it is important for agriculture to produce row materials that are valuable for nutrition and have favourable characteristics for food processing. For this we need a knowledge about the factors which determine the quality of products. One of the main features of plant product...ion is the “immobility”. This way the characteristics of the field influence the quality of the product, like example winter wheat, which is the main cereal in Hungary and Europe.
The Concordia Co. has charged the Central Laboratory of Debrecen University, Agricultural Centre with laboratory testing of the 2002/2003 winter wheat crop. The samples consist of thirteen winter wheat varieties from six different sites under the same cultivating conditions. Therefore, the important wheat quality factors were analysed solely against site conditions with the use of Győri’s “Z” index, which contains these parameters.
Soils were tested first. In this experiment excepting the negligible differences between the sites, there were no linear relations found between quality factors, productivity and soil features. The case is the same with the relation between precipitation, temperature and quality parameters. However, it must be noted that additional soil analyses are required to interpret the extreme results obtained from Karcag.
The calculated Győri’s Z-index shows relative stability concerning certain varieties, although considerable deviation can be found in varieties related to the sites. According to these results, it can bestated that winter wheat quality was not linearly influenced by soil and weather in the 2002/2003 vegetation period. As the same cultivation technology was used in the experiment, the index was determined by genetic features. It must be noted that these findings are relevant only to this experiment.

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Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species
Published December 16, 2012
159-164

The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of ...the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.

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