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  • Simulation Experiments for Observation of Different Genetic Parameters

    The change of genetics variance in various simulated population were examined trough 25 generations. The population size were 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 and 16000. The number of genes were1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Two allels per gene were applied. It was assumed that base population was randomly mated. Also it was assumed that a pair of allel genes was independent, there was no epistasis, linkage between alleles of different loci, dominance and overlapping generations. In the selection was kept the 93% of females and 0.186% of males. The size of populations was close to constant through generations.
    The size of populations and the number of loci were effects that how many generation is necessary to get genetical maximum. The change of the genetical mean of the population and the genetical variance were well subscribed cube and logistical curve. We can use to estimate these genetical parameters with the previous functons.

  • An Analysis of Rotational Line Mating Using Computer Simulation

    In a simulation examination, we analyzed the effect of the family size and the rate of pairing on the survival of rare genes, to keep the level of variation of the genepool and to avoid the loss of alleles.
    The population size was 360 animals. In the simulation, we calculated on the basis of a discrete population. We placed the 360 animals into different clusters, with 3 types of frequencies of alleles and 3 types of groups. We assumed 2, 3 or 4 alleles in 8 loci. We generated 15 generations using the same mating and selection system used in practise. The simulation was written with Scilab 2.7.2 software, and evaluated with SPSS software.
    There were significant changes in the effect of family size on the genetic variation in the following cases: when the base population had the same gene frequencies in all loci, and when the gene frequencies were between 0.125-0.75. In these cases, we found that the smaller families (10 animals/cluster) were better than the larger families (30 or 90 animals/cluster). The first generation where there accured a loss of alleles was averagely earliest in larger families (90 animal/cluster). This average was 3.37 generations. When we are searched the effects of the different rates of pairing we found those cases most favourable when the ratio of males and females was 1:2 or 1:4 as compared to 1:9. The first generation where there was a loss of alleles was averagely earliest at the ratio of pairing male and females of 1:9 (the mean was 3.05 generations) when the frequency of the rarest allele was 0.0069.
    The recently introduced rotating-random mating system is an eligible method for small populations for the preservation of genes.

  • The impact of employment and income circumstances on the development of regions

    The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.

    As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.

    The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.

    The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.

    There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
    The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.

  • Livestock production development in AP Vojvodina

    The aim of this paper is to present the effects of breeding program implementation on the development of animal breeding in Vojvodina since 2010. Data from the Main breeding organization (controlled population) and data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (total population) were used as a basis for this research. The main breeding organization is the Departmant of
    Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad that implemented the main breeding programs in cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. The milk yield in a recorded population of Holstein Friesian and Simmental cows shows evident phenotypic increasing trend as opposed to a population that is not controlled. The results of the selection measures in Vojvodina show that pig breeding has an upward trend and that we have an increasing number of small and medium (family) farms. Interest in sheep and goat production is increasing primarily because of the high demand for products made from sheep meat and goat milk and meat. In the recent decades, Vojvodina has been faced with a decrease in the number of horses. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in sports horses and recreation. According to poultry production results of parental flocks, an increasing tendency was  observed in the production of controlled flocks recently, while the number of breeding stock breeders was reduced.

  • Comparison of major population parameters of Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) in two hunting fields of the Great Hungarian Plain

    Hungarian stock of game is not only part of our national treasure but also one of our domestic products and economic income. Not indifferent therefore the number and the state of health of our wildlife. Population decline of the Brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1758) (one of our most important small game in Hungary) takes a long time. Demographic parameters of Brown hare was examined, particularly the factors affecting the decline of the species in Hungary. We took samples from typical habitats where the Brown hare could be found in relatively high density in our country. The article reports data of reproductive characteristics, diseases, parasites of Brown hare and other factors such as climatic and anthropogenic which could influence of the population dynamics. We mention sample collection and processing methods eg: population size estimates, examination of reproductive organs, the sex ratio and the age structure as well as the individual condition based on data of domestic and foreign authors and our partial results.

  • The importance of predator species in the population dynamics of the Brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) – Literature review

    One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife management professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.

  • Interpretation of sustainability in the utilization of renewable energy sources

    The utilization of renewable energy sources (res) is crucial regarding to sustainable reconstruction of energy systems. The target is a balanced, sustainable development of Hungarian energy management considering equally the ecological, social and economic aspects. There are many different technologies of utilization of res varied by sources, conversion processes, size and products. The comparison of each technology and their sustainability assessment are required by the importance of efficient remodeling of energy infrastructure. The group of attributes was composed by numerous important parameters in the course of our analysis with the choice experiment (ce) methodology. The estimation of each attributes’ influence on the individual’s preferences and choices was possible by this method and the preferences of the statistical population was concluded. So thus the utility derived from each attribute was estimated. The result of the ce analysis for the population of experts is demonstrated in the current phase of our research.

  • Relationships of Fruit Production and Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region

    The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
    Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
    The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
    The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.

  • Data to the growth of yoy (0+) tenches (Tinca tinca L.) in Tisza Lake

    Young of the year (YOY) tenches (Tinca tinca L.) were caught in relatively great number in Tisza-Lake at the Tiszafüred section on last days of October in 2004. The standard length of these fishes varied between 20 and 46 mm. It seemed that the collected sample could provide appropriate data to examine the size-structure of YOY tenches, so we measured their standard body-lengths in mm and -weights in hundred parts of gramm unit. After the statistical analysis were found the follows:
    1. The curve of length frequency corresponds with normal distribution, i.e. there was not found multimodal curve as could be expected in the case of a periodic spawning species.
    2. The average standard length of the examined individuals – although the environmental conditions of the population is good – was only 31 mm. It is far below the 37 mm average of the lowest growth of tench population was found in the scientificpapers.
    3. More than 20% of measured sample belonged to the range of 20-26 mm. The estimated ages of these fish specimens are about 70 days, according the scientificpapers.
    By right of above mentioned can be concluded that the sample represents only one age-group from a late spawning, and not the whole range of YOY tenches, so these data can give information about the size structure only of this group. The 31 mm average standard length of individuals, origin from spawning in late July or beginning of August is accordance with age and environmental conditions as well.

  • Clay-pit systems fishfaunistic research in the Middle-Tisza

    After the regulation of the Tisza River the chance of successful fish propagation lessened. Natural spooning places in the river almost completely disappeared. The fish have to find an adequate place for their propagation in the flood plain. The period of spooning usually coincides with flooding of the river. At this time fish try to find the flooded shallow places for spooning. These parts mostly include the clay-pits beside dams, which were accidentally established during construction of the dams. At this place the fry can find the necessary food. After decreasing the flood the fingerlings and a part of the spooners are trapped inclay-pits as these latter ones are not connected with the river bed. The clay-pits usually desiccate during the summer. The trapped fish population is eaten by water birds or harvested by the local man population. This means a great loss for reproduction of some fishspecies.
    Within the framework of the Regional Rehabilitation Program at Nagykörű, supported by the “WWF Hungary” and a “SAPARD project,” these clay-pits became connected with each other in a stretch of 5 km, and they were jointed to the Tisza by a collecting channel. The water level has been regulated by a flood gate so that the water enters the holes during the flood and is released later on in to the water bed.
    Data on fish were collected from the Nagykörű Whole System, from the Anyita pond and some isolated wholes in Szandaszöllős in 2004 and 2005. First of all fish fry and fingerling were collected and the success of spooning at these places was examined. Fry was harvested by a 60 x 80 cm sized lifting net of 2x3 mm mesh size. In other cases nets used by anglers for catching prey fishes was also used. Data were also collected from local fishermen who participated in saving the fry and fishing of Anyita pond.
    Of the several thousand caught fish specimens 28 species were identified, and among them 5 protected and 5 economically important species was found. Protected fishes were as follow: gudgeon (Gobio gobio), bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus amarus), weather fish (Misgurnus fossilis), spined loach (Cobitis elongatoides) and tubenosed goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus). Among economically important fishessamples of asp (Aspius aspius), carp (Cyprinus carpio), wels (Silurus glanis), pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were

  • The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield
    The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield In our research, we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons.
    We analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with a control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
    In 2015, the highest yield was produced by hybrid P9241 with N80+PK and 70 thousand plants per hectare. With the N160+PK fertilizer dosage, the same hybrid responded the best, followed by hybrids P9486 and DKC4717. Using the same fertilizer treatment, the 80 thousand plants per hectare population density resulted in decrease in the yield with most of the examined hybrids. In 2016, with the increase in the number of plants per hectare, even with non-fertilised treatment (control treatment), the yield could be increased in the case of each hybrid.
    Averaged over the different hybrids and fertilizer treatments, applying 80 thousand plants ha-1 instead of 60 thousand resulted in 1.0 ha-1 yield increase. In 2017, the number of plants had a slighter effect. With N160+PK treatment, in most cases no significant difference can be observed. The value of LSD5%: plant number: 0.20 t ha-1, hybrid: 0.28 t ha-1, interaction: 0.48 t ha-1. With N160+PK treatment, the hybrids produced yields between 10.07 and 12.45 t ha-1. When examining the three years in the average of the number of plants, with treatment without fertilisation, the average yield of hybrids reached 7.53 t ha-1. With N80+PK treatment, this value was 9.71 t ha-1 and with doubling the fertilizer dosage, this value increased to 10.42 t ha-1. No economic profit was gained as a result of applying double dosage of fertilizer; therefore, the N80+PK dosage can be considered ideal.
  • Plant protection praxis on Hévíz Nature Conservation Area (Lake Balaton District, Hungary)

    The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decades, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.

  • Distribution of family farms according to estate size and land usage in Hajdú-Bihar County

    In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.

  • Preservation of Biological Diversity of Domestic Animals in Hungary

    Since the 1992 Rio de Janeiro UNO Congress domestic animals belong also officially to the genetic diversity of the world. Non commercial domestic animal breeds should be maintained for many cultural and technical reasons. Conservation and preservation of living beings is nowadays in the programme of many regional, national and international organizations.
    The preservation of domestic animals is possible in situ (at the original place and conditions) and ex situ (by cryogenic methods).
    There are three era in the history of preservation of domestic animals: the epoch of spontaneous maintenance, the period of sporadic national activities and the era of international programme.
    Some of the questions to be solved by scientific research: the principles of selection of the candidate populations for maintenance, the different degrees of endangeredness, the necessary population size to be subsidized, the problem of inbreeding, the best mating systems etc.
    In Hungary the maintenance of endangered domestic animal breeds is based upon the low.
    The following breeds are on the list of protected breeds:
    − the Hungarian Grey cattle,
    − the Lipizzan, Shagya, Nonius, Gidran, Furioso,Kisbér Halfbred, Murinsulaner and Hucul horses,
    − the Racka, Tsigai and Cikta sheep,
    − the Mangalitsa pig,
    − the Hungarian yellow, white, speckled and the Transsylvanian naked necked hen,
    − the Bronze Turkey,
    − the Frizzle Feathered goose.
    Hopefully in the near future the breeders of traditional domestic animal breeds will find the possible niches for their special products.

  • Examination of resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection on genetically different common carp variants (preliminary results)

    Septicemia disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is a major problem for fish farmers around the world. In our experiment resistance to the disease was investigated on carp variants with diferent genetical backgrounds. 96 different genetic variants(„families”) were created by crossing various individuals of 4 carp strains (2 wild and 2 cultured ones). Families were reared until reaching the size of 10 gramms and 100 fish of each families were marked with an individual electronic identifier. Marked fish were divided into 5 groups. Fish from one group were infected with A. hydrophila and mortality were registered during 2 weeks. Based on mortality data, the most resistant and most susceptible families will be selected using population genetics methods.

  • Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization

    The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

    Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

  • Population date of Great Cormorant at the area of the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co.

    Hungary’s great cormorant stock did not use to be a considerable one before the 1980s. After that, their number has been rising significantly. The size of the stock now is rather stagnating or slightly growing. The presence of cormorants has been significant around ponds of the Hortobágy Fish Farm in the past few years. Due to considerable fish consumption of cormorants it is essential to know which and what kinds of units of the ponds (spawning, supply, and market) are preferred by the birds in order to see to adequate protection. The aim of our research was to discover any differences in the number of cormorants present at particular units of the fishpond system and certain ponds of equal kinds within them.

    Our observations were in line with the methods used in ornithological researches. The experiment took place between April and October 2012 on a monthly basis. According to the results we found relevant differences in the number of cormorants based on the seasons and months as well. This fact was supported by statistical data. During the autumn and winter birds prefer supply and market purpose ponds while their presence here is vanishing during the summer. Relevant presence of cormorants around the area of the Old Fishponds (70 to 200 specimens) might be due to lack of disturbance and large sizes of the ponds.

    Our research has great scientific relevance since it is vital to be aware of the preferred periods and areas in order to maintain effective protection; this way alerting activities can be applied in a more harmonized way. By keeping our research up as a monitoring activity, we will be able to receive more precise data later on.