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Mycotoxin contamination in maize triggered by arthropod pests and the related protection possibilities
Published May 16, 2017
59-64

Mycotoxin contamination in harvested maize has increased in the last decades, which can be unequivocally back to the plant health troubles caused by global warming. The increasing of wounds in maize crops was occurred by climate change both on direct (hailstorm) and indirect
(newly appeared pests) ways. In additional, the settling phytopatho...genic microfungi on these plant wounds inflict serious human and animal health problems.
The changing of Hungarian arthropod pests assemblages stand in the background of this dangerous nuisance complex. The spreading of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) bivoltine ecotype as well as the newly appeared adventive species [cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hbn.), western corn rootworm (Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte), fourspotted-sapbeetle (Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say)] in Hungary can be responsible for this situation. In total, all technological elements, which obstruct the damage of these chewing mouthparts pests, as well as moderate the mechanical damage of maize, can be contribute to the reduction of both these phytopathogens injuries and mycotoxin contaminations.

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Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
Published February 25, 2014
35-40

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food..., seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

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The factors affecting the proliferation of mould fungi and mycotoxin production during the storage of wheat and the identification methods of the appearing branches
Published July 31, 2012
129-133

Nowadays, it is often suggested that, we should eat products made with whole grain cereals, despite of the fact that it raises the risk of consuming wheat products infected by mold and their toxins originated from the plough-lands and the stocks.
Two third of the cultivated fields in Hungary are planted with cereals. The most alarming proble...m for food and feed security is caused by the Fusarium species. The greatest problem of all is caused by the mycotoxins. When they get into the food chain they can be a serious threat to public health. In addition, we have to face up to the problem of the effects of global warming that influence the growth of microbial infections in different ways.
In this article we tried to summarize the effect of climate change on molds, the factors which have effect on growing and mycotoxin producing of molds and the identification methods of molds.

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Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species
Published December 16, 2012
159-164

The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of ...the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.

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Risk effects of the spread route of mycotoxins
Published October 5, 2010
90-95

In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food... chain. In Hungary’s climate the soil is contaminated with pathogen
moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.

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Anaerobe degradation of maize infected by Fusarium graminearum
Published July 18, 2012
57-61

Last year intense rainfalls and moisture conditions were beneficial for the Fusarium sp. in Hungary. Fusarium strains decrease cereal quality (for example maize), furthermore may cause yield loss. Due to the toxin production, the fungi have a dangerous animal and human pathogen effect (Placinta et al., 1999).The effects of the Fusarium infectio...n and its mycotoxin production haven’t been perfectly eliminated. Fusariumgraminearum
is the most common agricultural pathogen in Hungary. The utilization of infected maize as an alternative biogas raw material may be an efficient and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this case, Fusarium-, and mycotoxin-content of the maize have to be analyzed as well as the impact of these factors’ on the biogas production process. Our experience was based on the raw material basis of a biogas plant. Different amount of Fusarium free and infected maize grits have been added to the regular raw material mixture. The detection of Fusarium fungi has been analyzed
in experimental digesters throughout the different stages of mesophilic digestion. In the biogas liquid end product the Fusarium was detected by breeding and by microscope. According to our results, the Fusarium sp. was not detectable in the liquid end product after 30 days.

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Food safety of plant origin food
Published November 13, 2012
161-164

Expectation regarding changes related to food production, transportation, distribution and marketing have changed considerably in several regions of the world over the past decades. It is especially true for highly industrialized countries where not only the food security is important but the food safety is essential too. The concentration of p...roduction – processing – distribution involves the danger on the one hand products of unsuitable quality from point of view of nutritional physiology and the other hand ones that may contain substances harmful to human health will become widespread among consumers. We investigated the heavy metal, pesticide remains and mycotoxin content of different plant products.

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