Search



Show Advanced search options Hide Advanced search options
Effect of tillage practices, fertilizer treatments and crop rotation on yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published December 1, 2020
43-48

This research was conducted at the University of Debrecen Látókép Research Station and is part of an ongoing long-term polyfactorial experiment. The impact of three tillage systems (Mouldboard plowing-MT, Strip tillage-ST, Ripper tillage-RT) and two levels of fertilizer treatments (N80 kg ha-1, N160 kg ha...-1) along with a control (N0 kg ha-1) on the yield of maize hybrids (Armagnac- FAO 490 & Loupiac-FAO 380) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat was evaluated during a two-year period (2017–2018).

Amongst the three tillage treatments evaluated, ripper tillage (RT) had the highest average yield (10.14 t ha-1) followed by mouldboard tillage (MT) and strip tillage (ST) with 9.84 and 9.21 t ha-1 respectively. Yield difference between RT and MT was not significant (P>0.05), as compared to ST (P<0.05). Soil moisture content varied significantly with tillage practices and was highest in ST, followed by RT and MT (ST>RT>MT). Yield of RT was 7–9% higher than MT in monoculture plots, while MT reign superior in biculture plots (monoculture: RT>MT>ST; biculture: MT>RT>ST).

A positive interaction between tillage and fertilization was observed, with higher yield variation (CV=40.70) in the non-fertilized (N0) plots, compared to those which received the N80 (CV=19.50) and N160 kg ha-1 (CV=11.59) treatments.

Incremental yield gain from increase fertilizer dosages was significantly higher in monoculture, compared to biculture. There was no significant difference in yield between N160 and N80 in the biculture plots (12.29 vs 12.02 t ha-1). However, in monoculture plots, N160 yield was 23% higher than the N80 kg ha-1 (N160=11.74 vs N80=9.56 t ha-1).

Mean yield of maize in rotation with winter wheat was 28% (2.47 tons) higher than monoculture maize. The greatest benefit of crop rotation was observed in the control plots (N0) with an incremental yield gain of 4.39 tons ha-1 over monculture maize (9.92 vs 5.43 t ha-1).

Yield increased with higher fertilizer dosages in irrigated plots. Fertilizer application greatly increased the yield of maize and accounted for 48.9% of yield variances. The highest yield (11.92 t ha-1) was obtained with N160 kg ha-1 treatment, followed by N80 kg ha-1 (10.38 t ha-1) and N0 kg ha-1 (6.89 t ha-1) respectively.

Overall mean yield difference between the two hybrids was not statistically significant, however, yield of FAO 380 was 3.9% higher (9.06 vs. 8.72 t ha-1) than FAO 490 in monoculture plots, while in biculture plots, FAO 490 was 4.1% higher than FAO 380.

Average yield in 2018 was 13.6% (1.24 t ha-1) higher than 2017 for the same set of agrotechnical inputs, thus, highlighting the significant effect of cropyear.

Armagnac (FAO 490) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat, under ripper tillage and N80 kg ha-1 is the best combination of treatments for optimum yield.

Show full abstract
35
24
Correlation between the weather in 2017 and the productivity of maize
Published June 30, 2018
89-93
In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of... maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In Hajdúszoboszló in 2017, up to October, 445.8 mm of rain fell, which is in line with the average values of 30 years, and is only 45.7 mm less than those. In 2017, the effect of increasing the plant number was slighter. Averaged over the observed fertilizer treatments and hybrids, the yield was 9.10 t ha-1 with 60 thousand plants ha-1, 9.11 t ha-1 with 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 9.12 t ha-1 with 80 thousand plants ha-1. Without fertilization, in most cases, increasing the plant number from 60 thousand plants ha-1 to 70-80 thousand plants ha-1 does not increased the yield but decreased it. With N80+PK treatment the yield changed between 8.90 and 11.27 t ha-1. The effect of increasing the plant number was just slightly observable and did not show a clear tendency. The effect of changing the plant number, even with the highest dosage of fertilizers, could not be detected adequately. In contrast with the plant number, the effect of the different fertilizer treatments was expressly traceable. Compared to the control treatment (treatment without fertilization), with N80+PK fertilizer dosage with 60 thousand plants ha-1 the yield increased by 3.36–4.99 t ha-1. The smallest demonstrable proof, i.e. the LSD5% was 0.22 t ha-1, which means that fertilization, in each case, significantly increased the yield. When analysing the effect of fertilization in the average of the hybrids and the different plant numbers, a yield of 5.61 t ha-1 could be detected, which value was 10.12 t ha-1 with N80+PK treatment and 11.61 t ha-1 with N160+PK treatment. Thus, it can be calculated that compared to the treatment without fertilization, the N80+PK treatment increased the yield by 4.51 t ha-1, while compared to the N80+PK treatment, the N160+PK treatment increased the yield by 1.49 t ha-1. In addition to agrotechnical factors, in maize production, the impact of the crop year is specifically of high importance.
The average yield of hybrids (in the average of the different fertilizer treatments) was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 and 9.11 t ha-1 in 2017. When comparing the yield results against the precipitation data, it is clearly visible that the amount of rain fell in the January– October period is directly proportional to the average yield of maize. The effect of the crop year can be defined in a 5.05 t ha-1 difference in the yield.
Show full abstract
70
60
The effect of plant density on maize yield in average and extremely dry years
Published December 21, 2008
7-16

The yield safety of maize has not been satisfactory in Hungary for decades. Yield is influenced by the combination of several factors.
In recent years, the frequency of dry years increased and fertilization decreased. These factors call for a rational determination of the plant density.
I studied the relationship between plant density and... yield in 2003-2004 and 2007 on meadow soil. 
In 2003, the weather was dry. In the vegetation period, the amount of precipitation was 78.5 mm lower and the temperature was 0.97 °C higher than the average of 30 years, the number of hot days was 47-60 (days with a temperature higher than 30 °C). However, we obtained favourable results under experimental conditions in 2003 after wheat as a forecrop using the fertilizer Kemira Power. 
The weather in 2004 was favourable. In the vegetation period, the amount of precipitation was 93.2 mm higher than the average of 30 years.  Although, the distribution of the precipitation could have been more favourable. The yield of the hybrids ranged between 8.87-10.42 t/ha. Among the studied seven hybrids, the early hybrids gave the highest yield at the highest plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha (PR38Y09, PR38A67, PR37D25, PR37M34). However, FAO 400-500 hybrids gave favourable results also at the low plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha (8-9 t/ha). At this plant density, the aeration of the plant stock was better and the hybrids were prone to bringing several cobs. Yield stagnated with increasing plant density (60 thousand plants/ha), then at 75-90 thousand plants per ha, the yield started to increase again.
In 2004 the yield of hybrids was considerably higher than in the previous year. In contrast to yields of 8.87-10.42 t/ha in 2003, yields in 2004 were around 9-12 t/ha.
The yield of the hybrid XO 902 P is above 12 t/ha already at a plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha. It gives maximum yield at the plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha.
The hybrid PR38P92 showed a good response to changing plant density, but its yield was only 9 t/ha at the low plant density value.
In a favourable year, the yield of the hybrids PR38B85, PR37W05, PR37D25, PR37K85 at a plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha 11 t/ha, while at the higher plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha, it ranges around 13-15 t/ha.

Hybrids PR36K20, PR35Y54, PR34H31 have a good individual yield and they are prone to bringing several cobs in favourable years at a low plant density. Their maximum yield at the plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha is almost 16 t/ha.
In 2007, the weather was similar to that of the extremely dry year of 2003. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was 41.9 mm lower than the average of 30 years and its distribution was not favourable either.
In the optimum NPK fertilizer treatment at an optimum plant density, the yield of hybrids ranged between 9.32-10.73 t/ha. The highest yields of 10.22-10.73 t/ha were measured for hybrids PR38A79 (FAO 300) and PR35F73 at a relatively low plant density of 60 thousand plants/ha.
In the average of the hybrids, the optimum NPK dosage was N 131, P2O5 82, K2O 93 kg/ha active ingredient.

Show full abstract
20
36
The effect of plant density to the yield results and the yield components of maize hybrids
Published May 16, 2017
89-93

Maize is the crop that is produced on the second largest area in our country, in Hungary. It is planted on nearly 25% of the country’s growing area and it was produced on 1 090 439 hectares in 2016. Despite the continuous development of the biological basis and production
technology, the growth of the yield results is not constant, its flu...ctuation is significant. It can be even up to 60%, because of the extremity of the years. The exploitation of the yield potential of modern hybrids is possible if we harmonize the effects of the ecological factors and properly applied instruments of agro technology and by these we ensure their interaction to reach a favorable outcome. The applied plant density is an important, well researched, but at industrial level a not enough utilized element of the maize production.
The results of the extensive tests, done between 2009 and 2015, showed that the genotype, the year effect and the plant density are in strong correlation with each other determining the yield results. In the past seven years the examined genotypes reached the highest yield
performance at the highest plant densities. The early hybrids (RM90–95, FAO 200–300) are capable of producing them at higher plant density, while in case of the mid and late maturity varieties the further increasing of the density after reaching the optimum level led to yield depression.
According to our experimental results, the yield is in close positive correlation with the increase of the plant density. The effect of the growing season has great significance in forming the yield results and this determines the applicable plant density too.
The yield of maize is determined by a resultant of components. The main component is the number of ears per plant and the amount of kernels per ear, which is calculated from the number of kernels on an ear and the weight of them. The number of the kernels on an ear is
calculated from the number of rows on the cob multiplied by the number of seeds in one row on the cob. In dry years, at lower yield levels the yield decreases because of the shorter ears, while at the higher levels the number of kernels in a row and the thousand-kernel weight decreases,causing yield depression this way. From our examinations it turned out that the plant density reaction of a genotype is individual, every variety reaches its maximum kernel number per hectare – in other words the maximum yield - in an individual way.

Show full abstract
60
54
The effect of crop year and agrotechnical factors on the yield of various maturity groups of Limagrain maize hybirds
Published July 18, 2012
19-23

The Limagrain maize hybrids in different maturity groups were examined at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture, between 2001 and 2007 in a multifactorial long-term field trial. Doses of fertilizers: 1 N:0.75 P2...b>O5:0.88 K2O fixed proportion of NPK doses. The basic dose of nitrogen is 30 kg ha-1. The application of fertilization was 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 times more than the basic dose, beside of untreated control. The long-term field trial is performed in none irrigated and in irrigated version.
The goal of the study was to analyze the effect of precipitation (environment factor) in one hand, and to evaluate the effect of fertilization and irrigation (agrotechnical factors) on the yield of maize hybrids in different maturity groups in the other hand. At the same time I studied the effect of interaction of different factors on the yield of maize. 

Analysis the yield of Limagrain hybrids revealed: the years considerably affected the level of the yield. In dry years the yield was 1.351 t ha-1 less, than in rainy years. As the effect of fertilization the yield increased, the statistically proved biggest increment was at level of 90 kg N ha-1. Evaluating the maturity groups, FAO 300 hybrids reached higher level of yield. 
In non irrigated conditions in the average of the seven years 60 kg N ha-1 was sufficient to reach the maximum yield. The efficiency of fertilization on yield in irrigated version increased, 120 kg N ha-1 assured the reliable level of yield. 
Without irrigation in comparison to the results of FAO 200 group, with the growth of FAO numbers the yield is increasing in all cases. The most significant increase was at FAO 300 (3.562 t ha-1). With irrigation the greatest difference in yield was in FAO 400 (+2.720 t ha-1) compared to FAO 200.

Show full abstract
61
51
The effect of NPK fertilization and the number of plants on the yield of maize hybrids with different genetic base in half-industrial experiment
Published March 23, 2016
103-108

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.

The experiment ...took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a halfindustrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants/ha.

In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2015 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 340.3 mm, which was less than the average of 30 years by 105.5 mm. This year was not only draughty but it was also extremely hot, as the average temperature was higher by 1.7 °C than the average of 30 years. In the critical months of the growing season the distribution of precipitation was unfavourable for maize: in June the amount of rainfall was less by 31mm and in July by 42 mm than the average of many years.

Unfavourable effects of the weather of year 2015 were reflected also by our experimental data. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 5.28–7.13 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.

It can be associated also with the unfavourable crop year that the yield of the six tested hybrids is 6.33 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 7.14 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is only 0.81 t ha-1, but it is significant. Due to the especially draughty weather the yield increasing effect of fertilizers was moderate. In the average of the hybrids and the number of plants, increasing the N80+PK treatment to N160+PK, the yield did not increase but decreased, which is explicable by the water scarcity in the period of flowering, fertilization and grain filling.

The agroecological optimum of fertilization was N 80, P2O5 60 and K2O 70 kg ha-1. Due to the intense water scarcity, increased fertilization caused decrease in the yield. As for the number of plants, 70 000 plants ha-1 proved to be the optimum, and the further increase of the number of plants caused decrease in the yield.

Show full abstract
76
73
The effect of sowing time on the yield and the variance of the seed moisture content a harvest of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
39-49

Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly. ...2003 was drought. Neither the distribution, nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.

Show full abstract
17
16
The Effect of Fertilization and Irrigation on Maize(Zea mays L.) Production
Published September 15, 2003
26-29

In a long-term field experiment set up at the Látókép experimental station of the Center of Agricultural Sciences of Debrecen University, the data of the last five years (1995-1999) were analyzed to determine the crop production factors with the greatest influence on maize production and the relationship and interactions between irrigation a...nd fertilization.
In the extremely dry year of 1995, fertilization was found to cause substantial yield depression in the absence of irrigation. According to results of analysis of variance, fertilization significantly reduced the maize yield by 40-90% compared to control plots. Under irrigated conditions, there was a considerable increase in the maize yield, the yield surplus being 4.4-9.4 t ha-1, depending on the nutrient supply level.
During the period from 1996-1999, when rainfall conditions were favorable for maize, fertilization significantly increased the maize yield even without irrigation over the average of the four years. The yield surplus due to fertilization was 3.9-4.6 t ha-1, depending on the fertilization rates. The maximum yield surplus was obtained on plots fertilized with 120 N kg ha-1, while at the rate of 240 N kg ha-1 the maize yield did not differ significantly from this value. During the period examined, corn yield was significantly higher at all three nutrient supply levels as the result of irrigation than in the non-irrigated treatment. As in the case of non-irrigated conditions, the highest fertilizer dose did not result in a substantial yield increase. An analysis of the interaction between fertilization and irrigation indicated that the yield-increasing effect of fertilization was not significantly different under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. The significant year x irrigation interaction was confirmed by the fact that the yield surplus (1.3-2.3 t ha-1) differed greatly from the irrigation effect recorded in 1995.

Show full abstract
23
29
Effect of Ferilizer on the Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)
Published September 15, 2003
40-46

The effect of fertilization on the yield of maize was examined on chernoem soil with lime deposits at the experimental station at Látókép of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen. The yields of maize were evaluated using quadratic regression function, in three years – between 2000 and 2002 – in non-irrigated and ir...rigated treatments. After calculating the regression equations, by derivation of the functions, we have determined the amount of fertilizers needed for maximum yield.
In the non-irrigated treatments, maximum yield and the active substance amount of fertilizer was as it follows: in 2000, yield of 9,133 t/ha with the application of 384 kg/ha mixed active substance, while in 2002 a yield of 6,289 t/ha with the application 236 kg/ha NPK active substance was achieved. In 2001, due to the favourable precipitation, a yield of 9,864 t/ha was achieved with the application of 245 kg/ha fertilizer. In the case of maximum yield, compared to the unfertilized control, the yield increase was 2,5-5 t/ha. The average increase for 1 kg of NPK fertilizer was 13-19 kg.
We also determined the necessary fertilizer dosage for maximum yield in irrigated treatments. In 2000, 10,003 t/ha with a dosage of 423 kg/ha, in 2001, 11,542 t/ha with a dosage of 277 kg/ha and in 2002, 8,596 t/ha of maximum yield could be achieved with a fertilizer treatment of 277 kg/ha in the examined three years. The yield increase, in irrigated treatments, varied between 3,9-5,9 t/ha so it was greater than in the case of non-irrigated experimetal plots. The yield increase for 1 kg fertilizer varied between 12-21 kg.

Show full abstract
31
38
The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield
Published June 30, 2018
83-87
The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield In our research, we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of m...aize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons.
We analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with a control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In 2015, the highest yield was produced by hybrid P9241 with N80+PK and 70 thousand plants per hectare. With the N160+PK fertilizer dosage, the same hybrid responded the best, followed by hybrids P9486 and DKC4717. Using the same fertilizer treatment, the 80 thousand plants per hectare population density resulted in decrease in the yield with most of the examined hybrids. In 2016, with the increase in the number of plants per hectare, even with non-fertilised treatment (control treatment), the yield could be increased in the case of each hybrid.
Averaged over the different hybrids and fertilizer treatments, applying 80 thousand plants ha-1 instead of 60 thousand resulted in 1.0 ha-1 yield increase. In 2017, the number of plants had a slighter effect. With N160+PK treatment, in most cases no significant difference can be observed. The value of LSD5%: plant number: 0.20 t ha-1, hybrid: 0.28 t ha-1, interaction: 0.48 t ha-1. With N160+PK treatment, the hybrids produced yields between 10.07 and 12.45 t ha-1. When examining the three years in the average of the number of plants, with treatment without fertilisation, the average yield of hybrids reached 7.53 t ha-1. With N80+PK treatment, this value was 9.71 t ha-1 and with doubling the fertilizer dosage, this value increased to 10.42 t ha-1. No economic profit was gained as a result of applying double dosage of fertilizer; therefore, the N80+PK dosage can be considered ideal.
Show full abstract
67
53
The impacts of spring basal and side dressing on maize yield
Published April 23, 2014
83-86

The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.

The aim... of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.

The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.

Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).

Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.

Show full abstract
68
58
The Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Density on the Yield of MaizeHybrids
Published December 6, 2005
95-104

The crop technology of maize has two important elements, sowing time and plant density. In 2003 and 2004 we studied the effect of these two factors on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény.
The soil of the experimental plots was meadow soil.
Weather in both years was differed greatly. 200...3 was drought. Neither the distribution nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004, we could talk about a favorable and rainy season. The distribution and quantity of precipitation was suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
Results of the sowing time experiment:
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids in the early maturity group gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids of the long maturity group gave it at the earlier planting time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids was the best at every planting time. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture content of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing time. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time than at the later.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
Results of the plant density experiment:
We tested the reaction of hybrids at four plant densities (45,000, 60,000, 75,000 and 90,000 stock/ha) every two years. In 2003, the tested seven hybrids reached the highest yield at the 90,000 stock/ha in the face of a droughty year. The effect of forecrop and favorable nutrients caused these results. In the rainy 2004 year, the yield grew linear with the growing plant density. The yield of the best hybrids were 14-15 t/ha at the 90,000 stock/ha.
Such a high plant density (90,000 stock/ha) couldn’t adaptable in farm conditions in rainy season. It is practical to determine the interval of plant density besides the optimum plant density of hybrids which gave correct yield. The farmers have to use the low value of this interval due to the frequent of the droughty years.

Show full abstract
23
50
The effect of production area on the development of yield producing factors of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids of different genotypes
Published February 18, 2016
67-72

Maize yield amount development is determined by the given crop year and the genotype of the applied hybrid, but beside these also by the applied agrotechnical factors, in particular by sowing technology. The development of yield amount and yield producing factors of five maize hybrids of different genotypes has been studied in a small-plot fiel...d experiment by the application of different row spacings and plant density variants. The production of the individual plants shows decreasing tendency parallel to the increasing plant density, however, this decrement is compensated by the higher number of plants per unit production area. Individual plant production is determined by the development of yield producing factors, such as the length and the diameter of cobs, just as by the thousand seed weight – that were studied in the present research work as well.

In the present research work the decreasing row spacing resulted in a yield increment of 0.67 t ha-1 (4.53%) in 2013, while in contrast in 2014 yield was decreased by 1.75 t ha-1 (14.87%). The high amount of precipitation in March was determinant in 2013: it filled up the soil water stock and balanced the negative effect of the inadequate amount and distribution of precipitation during the vegetation period for the yield. Lower extent of yield increment (0.6 t ha-1) was registered in 2014 in case of the row spacing of 76 cm than in the previous year. In case of a row spacing of 45 cm the difference between the two crop years was 3.1 t ha-1. The highest impact on the yield production factors was found in all treatment combinations in case of the applied hybrid among the three studied treatment factors. In the crop year of 2014 the effect of plant density on cob diameter and thousand seed weight could be revealed as well. In case of the cob diameter significant difference was found between the plant densities of 70 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1, just as between the populations with densities of 50 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1. In case of the thousand seed weight significant differences could be found by the application of plant densities of 70 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1. The highest values of the studied yield producing factors were measured in case of the plant densities of 50 000 and 70 000 plants ha-1; increasing the plant density to 90 000 plants ha-1 resulted in rather decreasing values.

Show full abstract
60
67
Effects of production factors on the yield and yield component of winter wheat
Published May 27, 2001
26-31

The effect of major production factors (forecrop, fertilisation, irrigation, soil cultivation and soil preparation) on the yield components and yield of winter wheat were studied in a long-term  experiment set up at the Látókép Experimental Nursery of the Agricultural Sciences Centre of the University of Debrecen. The results of regress...ion analysis led to the following conclusions:
• In our experiments in 2000, after using maize as a forecrop –based on the results of analysis of regression – fertilisation determined the yield.
• After using pea as a forecrop, a N50 P35 K40 kg/ha fertiliser rate led to an economical increase in the yield of winter wheat.
• None of the determinative yield components varied significantly for winter wheat produced after using pea as a forecrop.
• There is a closed, significant correlation between plant height, spike length, plant and spike mass, the number of spikelets and grains per spike after using maize as forecrop. The thousand grain mass is different from the other yield components, because it is not part of the relation system of
those yield components.
• The increased yield of winter wheat after maize has been used as a forecrop is due to the positive change in grain number per spike yield component.

Show full abstract
18
23
Impact of environmental changes resulting from different sowing dates on maize yield
Published February 25, 2014
99-104

Three Debrecen maize hybrids of different genotypes (Debreceni 285, Debreceni 377 and Debreceni 382) were examined on chernozem soil in a field experiment. During the two years of the experiment (2009–2010), we wanted to get to know how the examined hybrids reach to different sowing dates and what impact early, optimal and late sowing has on ...yield.

In 2009, balanced soil and air temperature resulted in steady emergence. However, the low temperature in early April and the cooling down in mid-May 2010 caused a delayed emergence.

The grain moisture content at harvesting and the high yield showed a strong crop year effect. In 2010, yield was much lower (1.664 t ha-1) and grain moisture was significantly higher (34%)than in 2009.

In 2009, early sowing resulted in yield decrease (P<0.05), but it also significantly reduced grain moisture at harvesting (P<0.05). Although late sowing slightly increased yield (not significantly), but grain moisture at harvesting increased by 9.2%. In 2010, optimal sowing date was shown to be the best alternative from the aspect of yield, but there was no significant difference in comparison with early and late sowing. Grain moisture at harvesting greatly increased (13.3%).

The Debreceni 382 maize hybrid reacted to sowing dates flexibly, neither early, nor late sowing affected its yield significantly and the grain moisture at harvesting showed 12% increase in the case of the late sowing date. In 2009, maize hybrids Debreceni 285 and Debreceni 377 reached their highest yield in the case of the sowing date which was shown to be optimal (23rd April), while the different sowing dates had no effect on yield in 2010.

Show full abstract
57
92
Technological development of sustainable maize production
Published May 16, 2017
83-88

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.
The experiment took ...place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly eight ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a half-industrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants per ha.
In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2016 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 605 mm, which was more than the average of 30 years by 160 mm. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 9.63–11.6 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.
The six tested hybrids is 10.65 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 12.24 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is 1.6 t ha-1, it is significant.
Da Sonka hybrid is sensitive to weather, it is able to produce 6 t ha-1 additional yield in case of favourable condition. However, it has a low stress tolerance. The most stable yields were observed at Kamaria and Pioneer hybrids. The effect of vintage is also an important factor on the yield. In average, the yield of maize was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, which was a drought year and 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 that was a favourable year.

Show full abstract
66
57
Evaluation of long term experiments from a new aspect
Published September 8, 2020
55-60

During our work, we developed a new, simple method to show the effects of fertilization on yield, which can both be applied over the long term as well as in series of independent experiments.
During the testing of this method, at the experimental farm of the Debrecen University Center for Agricultural Sciences at Látókép on a chernozem so...il with lime deposits, we examined the fertilizer reaction of maize hybrids between 1989 and 1994. The treatments were: winter tillage, plant density of 70-80 thousand, unfertilized, N 120, N 240 kg/ha fertilized treatments, long term experiments using Dekalb 524 and Volga SC hybrids in long term experiments.
Four parameters are shown in the model. In the examined period TRmax represents the greatest yield in the fertilized treatments, NT the yield in unfertilized treatment, k the „efficiency of fertilizer” to NT and b the depression-coefficient, where the expected value is zero. The expected grain yield of the fertilized treatments (Y), in the function of the unfertilized grain yield (x) is the following:

The parameters were determined using the Monte Carlo method, in the optimizing process the sum of deviation square was minimized. The correct conformation of the functions was determined by the greatness of the R-value and the standard error. We found that during six years of testing, the tendency of fertilization efficiency was similar in the case of both hybrids. There was an unfavorable weather interval and, in these years, the yields were low, fertilization did not have an effect and moreover, in extremely bad conditions resulted in an obvious yield decrease. With the  improvement of conditions, which in the case of our country means an increase in precipitation, the efficiency of fertilization increases and reaches its peak at 13-14 t/ha. At this point, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is 4-4,5 t/ha. If the yield of the unfertilized treatments increases from 8-9 t/ha, then the efficiency of the applied fertilizer decreases.
Most likely, the k and b parameters depend on the soil of the experimental location (nutrient and water management) and on the amount of  pplied fertilizer and the characteristics of the  hybrid. With the increase of fertilizer dosage the k-parameter also increases. The greater value though does not obviously mean a more favorable situation. It is true that in medium and good years this means great fertilizer efficiency, but in low or extreme precipitation conditions it also means greater risk. With the increase of the k-parameter, the yield deviation also increases which, from a cultivation point of view, is quite unfavorable. If the value of the b-parameter is other than, zero then the effect is clearly unfavorable, because with the increase of this value, the yield decrease is also greater. The fertilizer reaction of the two examined hybrids can be well characterized by these two hybrids.
Examining the six years, our created model estimated the effect of fertilization on the yield accurately and with a high degree of safety. Both in highly unfavorable and extremely good years, it gave an exact estimate. In our opinion, it can be used well to evaluate the effects of fertilization on yield in the future.

Show full abstract
28
5
Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
Published October 5, 2010
126-131

An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to ...diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

Show full abstract
12
4
Agronomical and economic evaluation of various cultivation systems on meadow soil
Published February 10, 2013
103-106

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The requirements and objectives of cultivation are in constant change. There are different cultivation aims if the objective is soil protection, the prevention of its moisture content or on areas with different precipitation supply or production site endowments. Based on the experimental database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences and the KITE Plc., the various cultivation systems in Hajdú-Bihar country were examined with maize as indicator plant. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Biharnagybajom on meadow soil. On the examined plot, spring strip basic cultivation, loosening and autumn ploughing were applied on 15-15-15 ha, respectively. At the time of taking undisturbed soil samples, soil conductivity measurements were also performed with a Penetronik penetrometer. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from each treatment before sowing (on 5th April 2012). The yield obtained in the strip cultivation treatment increased that of the ploughing and the loosening technology. The economic indexes are the most favourable in the strip cultivation.

Show full abstract
51
63
Hybrid-specific nutrient and water use of maize on chernozem soil
Published March 20, 2013
51-54

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The field research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen. The study focused on yield, water utilization, nutrient reaction and the amount of yield per kg fertilizer of corn hybrid NX 47279 in 2011 and 2012. Based on the yield results it can be concluded that the largest yield in 2011 was 15 963 kg ha-1 at level N120+PK, while in 2012, the maximum yield amounted to 14 972 kg ha-1 at level N90+PK. Surplus yield per kg fertilizer proved that in 2011 level N30+PK resulted in the highest surplus yield (42.3 kg kg-1) compared to the control treatment. In 2012, yield growth was 18.0 kg kg-1 compared to the control treatment. We measured at level N60+PK 17,5 kg kg-1 compared to at level N30+PK, at the N90+PK 17,7 kg kg-1 compared to at level N60+PK. level N30+PK kg kg-1, 17.5 kg kg-1 at level N60+PK and 17.7 kg kg-1 at level N90+PK compared to the control treatment.

Results of the regression analysis showed that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer was 117 kg ha-1 in 2011 and 111 kg ha-1 in 2012 in order to reach maximum yield. Doses of fertilizers above the amounts previously mentioned resulted in yield decrease. Our results indicated that in the drought year of 2012 the hybrid used available water more efficiently than in 2011. The hybrid produced 59 kg ha-1 yield in 2012 and 51.9 kg ha-1 in 2011 at an optimum nutrition level.

Show full abstract
60
53
Effect and interaction of crop management factors and crop year on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published December 1, 2020
31-41

The aim of this study was to determine the combination of treatment levels of crop management factors which can optimize and sustain maize yield under varying climatic conditions. The effect of winter wheat forecrop, three tillage systems (Mouldboard-MT, Strip-ST, Ripper-RT), two planting densities (60,000 & 80,000 plants ha-1...>), three fertilizer levels (N0-control, N80, N160 kg ha-1) with four replications in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments were evaluated over a five year period, 2015–2019. The obtained results revealed that growing season rainfall positively correlated with yield, whereas, temperature negatively correlated with yield. Impact of adverse weather on yield was less severe in biculture, irrigated plots, at lower planting density (60,000), lower fertilizer rate (N80) and in RT and ST, compared to MT. In years with favorable rainfall, yields of MT and RT were significantly (P<0.05) higher than ST. However, in a less favorable year, such as 2015, with 299 mm growing season rainfall and the lowest July rainfall (59% below mean) there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in yield among the three tillage treatments. Higher planting density (80,000), and fertilization rate (N160) in tandem with MT are treatments combination conducive for high yield under favorable climatic conditions, whereas, in years with low rainfall and high temperatures, RT and ST offer alternative to MT for optimum yield with 60,000 plants ha-1 and N80 treatment level. Crop year effect accounted for 20.7% of yield variance, fertilization 35.8%, forecrop 12.8%, plant density 3.4%, tillage 1.2% and irrigation <1%. It is conclusive that with proper selection of the appropriate levels of agrotechnological inputs the adverse effect of weather on yield can be mitigated.

Show full abstract
43
36
Examination of the impact of sowing technology models on the ear, constiuent and yield parameters of the yield formation elements of maize hybrids of different genotypes
Published March 20, 2013
17-23

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Production year 2012 has been characterised by climatic extremities. The weather of this year can be considered very contradictory in terms of maize production. The droughty conditions of the winter and spring months had a negative effect on both germination and starting vigour. The favourable weather of May-July created ideal conditions for intensive growth and generative processes; however the lack of precipitation in August and September had a damaging effect on the development of yield composing elements and grain saturation processes as well. Under such circumstances, the sowing date models caused significant differences in the yield and quality of the hybrids belonging to different growth periods. The growing period of the maize hybrids has been shortened as a result of the unfavourable climatic conditions.

Based on the trial results, it is verifiable that short growing period hybrids can be securely sown in draughty years even with a later sowing date, however using a later sowing date in the case of longer growth period hybrids may result even in a yield loss of 2–3 t ha-1. In the case of early and average sowing dates, with given yearly conditions the hybrids of the observed FAO 370-390 hybrid group provided the best result (12.40 t ha-1, 10.99 t ha-1), while in the case of the third, late sowing date the yield dominance of the FAO 290-350 hybrid group is the most significant (10.08 t ha-1).

The analysis of the yield composing elements found that the P9578 hybrid has the highest shelling ratio, while its cob is the shortest. The P9494 hybrid has a high yield and the highest thousand grain weight, while the DKC 4983 has the longest cob and its thousand grain weight is above 300 g.

The results confirm the fact that DKC 4590 has the highest yield potential and starch content, while in terms of oil and protein content the Szegedi 386 and NK Octet hybrids are the most important.

Show full abstract
54
60
Development of maize production technology that increase the efficiency of bioethanol production
Published November 2, 2009
17-26

Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and also in Hungary, it can be utilized for multiple purposes: as a feedingstuff, for human nutrition and for industrial processing. In the last decades, the per ha yield of maize varied greatly in Hungary, between 2004 and 2006, it was 6.82-7.56 t/ha, while in 2007, it was only 3.6 t/ha. Resul...ting from this, the price of maize became 2-2.5 times higher. The high price hinders bioethanol production. The largest per ton amount of bioethanol, 387 l, can be produced from maize.
In addition to its classical utilization as feed and food, the industrial use (especially for bioethanol production) of maize is increasin.
For industrial production, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2007.
The applied fertilization treatment was N 120, P2O5 80 uniformly, and five different dosages of potassium: K2O 0, K2O 100 (KCl), K2O 100 (Kornkáli), K2O 200 (KCl), K2O 200 (Kornkáli) kg/ha active ingredient. The applied plant densities were 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 thousand plants/ha.
The yield of maize hybrids in the fertilization experiment ranged between 10.53 – 14.62 t/ha. Both regarding the form and dosage, 100 kg/ha Kornkáli proved to be the best potassium treatment. Regarding the inner content parameters, the highest starch content in the average of treatments was obtained for the hybrid PR36K67: 73.57%, and its yield was also the highest, so this hybrid proved to be the most suitable for bioethanol production. The highest protein content was observed for the hybrids KWS 353 (12.13%), which can be favourable for feeding purposes.
Most of the hybrids gave the highest yield at 80 thousand plants/ha plant density, however, hybrids PR36K67 and Mv Tarján achieved the highest yield at 90 thousand plants/ha.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch content, a slight reduction of N, increase of potassium, the application of the highest plant densities of the optimum interval, harvest at full maturity (when starch content is the highest compared to protein content) are of great importance. 

Show full abstract
25
32
Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008
51-60

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

Show full abstract
27
32
Effect of sowing technology on the yield and harvest grain moisture content of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes
Published February 18, 2016
17-22

From the aspect of the efficiency of maize production harvest grain moisture content shall be considered beside the amount of harvested grain yield. Hybrids with different genotypes and vegetation period length lose their moisture content different that is affected by row spacing and plant density – among agrotechnical production factors – ...depending on the given crop year. In the present research work three crop years with different weather conditions were studied (2013, 2014, and 2015). The small-plot field experiment was set up at the Látókép Field Research Centre of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences with four replications on a chernozem soil type. The effect of three factors was analysed in the experiment on yield amount and its moisture content. Factors were row spacing (45 and 76 cm), plant density (50, 70 and 90 thousand plants ha-1), while hybrids were of very early (Sarolta: FAO 290), early (DKC 4014: FAO 320, P 9175: FAO 330, P 9494: FAO 390) and medium (SY Afinity: FAO 470) ripening.

In the crop year of 2013 the highest yield was produced – regarding the average of the hybrids – by the application of a row spacing of 45 cm (4.5%, 673 kg ha-1), however there was no significant difference between the yield of the populations of different row spacings. Significant difference (14.9%, 1751 kg ha-1; 6.3%, 583 kg ha-1) could be found in case of yield between different row spacing applications in 2014 and 2015. The effect of insufficiently distributed low amount of precipitation and lasting heat days in 2015 could be revealed in yield amounts and harvest grain yield moisture content results that were lower than in the previous years. In 2015 grain yield moisture content varied between 10.3 and 13.9% in case of a row spacing of 45 cm, while by 76 cm between 11.0 and 13.9%.

Show full abstract
58
71
1 - 25 of 117 items
1 2 3 4 5 > >>