Renewable energy applications were examined in animal farms. The investment support system for animal farms – which has renewable elements – has been summarized through analyzing the legislation and future prospects. The most important in this topic is the Animal Farm Modernization Support, which had several application periods during the 2...007–2013 CAP budgets. For analyzing practical application of renewable energies interviews and farm visits have done in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect were examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. The investment supports plays great role in renewable energy projects by lowering the return time; and through additional points in application assessing, which is an incentive for farmers to include renewable energy element in their modernization projects.
Since the political changes in Hungary, agricultural businesses have worked in a declining economic environment and hectic market situation, with a widening price gap between agricultural and industrial products and low profitability. A declining export comes then by no surprise. The sector has not been able to even benefit from export opportun...ities provided in the European Agreement. The area least benefiting from quotas is animal products (beef, mutton, lamb, slaughtered chicken, cheese, egg). The ministry of agriculture was lagging behind in responding to these problems, and it was as late as in 1995 when it launched a reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up (5).
The author has conducted empirical studies on agricultural enterprises in Csongrád county to see what results the special investment support delivered under the reorganisation programme produced. The fundamental aim of the reorganisation programme for export stocks fund build-up was to boost exportable Hungarian animal product stocks in a bid for businesses to better benefit from the preferential quotas set by the European Agreement. The author examined how the special investment support scheme succeeded in its aims, whether livestock grew considerably in its wake, whether farmers were able to attain exportable quality and what development funds enterprises were able to raise.
The main objective of this study was to determine and organize beneficial and detrimental effects of hail protection nets, and as far as possible to quantify their economic impact. The main factors were determined, through which hail protection nets can affect the costs and incomes of the production, and as their sum the economic result. Consid...ering these factors together with the investment cost and the annual maintenance costs allows the economic evaluation of purchasing of hail protection nets. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from apple producing businesses. Installing hail protection nets as additional technological elements of intensive apple orchards can be concluded by all means as an economic investment – trough their protective effect. However, to achieve really favourable economic indicators, definitely bigger tree height is needed making possible the realisation of around 8.0 t ha-1 extra yield. The main root of this phenomena are obviously the extremely high investment costs of hail protection nets, which result in a large mass of fixed costs during the production period. Therefore the basic economic interest is reaching higher yields and thereby higher profits per unit area.
The dairy farming sector needs constant modernization of its buildings, machines and technology in order to maintain its competitiveness and productivity. For the greater scale investments, these companies try to apply for state funds in addition to their own financial sources. Therefore, the investment support syst...em plays a great role by improving the competitiveness and modernity of these farms. In the last 10 years, 7 funding programs were available for dairy farms. In this research, 25 dairy farms were interviewed in Hajdú-Bihar County. The examined farms cover more than 50% of the milk production in Hajdú-Bihar County. The survey questions focused on the investment funding program use of farms between 2007 and 2017 and renewable energy investments including all programs. The results show how many tenders were submitted, how many were successfully evaluated and completed. All farms had at least two successfully evaluated projects. A correlation was found between completed projects by farm size and completed projects. The connection of the modernity index of dairy farms and the completed projects was also shown.
An informatical innovation is essentially a private business in the life of a venture but the ability of evolution and adaptability of ventures is remarkable for the national economy too. This is why it is important to observe the economical effects of IT investments. The introduction of an information system – as in the cases of other invest...ments – requires pre- and post-calculations for payback of fixed assest, thrift and profitability. The operation of an information system means not only one-off acquisition of instruments and intangible assets, but requires continuous development, version control and improvement of hardware in the sake of conservation. There is a high rate of depreciation of IT investments in Hungary, because such goods change too quickly, together with the economic environment. If the conservation of IT instrument value wanted one has to make new expansions continually. IT specialists have determined some indices, one of which is Total cost of Ownership, which is an important indicator for investment analysis. In practice, there are some other models and methods we can adopt in our analysis. In this paper, I collected several relevant and usable methods for pre analysis of IT projects. Management can adopt these models in his investment process to make sound decisions.
The main goal of this study was to determine whether the use of work platforms in super intensive apple orchards in order to reduce production costs and enhance work area performance under Hungarian circumstances an economic investment is. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from...apple producing businesses. The results show that work platforms have remarkable economic advantage in case of operations with high machine work expenditures or where they significantly improve the area performance of manual labour. The former was due to the much lower operating costs of work platforms compared to tractors, while the latter comes clear from reduction of manual labour input per hectare. The greatest economic advantage of work platforms occurs in case of harvesting and pruning, but in case of other operations they have no significant cost advantage. They main economic disadvantage is, however, that apple breaks more when harvesting with work platforms, i.e. picking quality deteriorates significantly. It can be concluded, that purchase of work platforms cannot be considered economic investment under Hungarian circumstances. It might be economic, utilised on maximum area (ca. 30 hectares) by certain companies in special cases, but in most cases has no favourable payback conditions.
In the information society we are living in the whirl of information but this doesn’t mean that we are in full possession of information for our present decisions. We gain the information at time in insufficiently detailed another time in too detailed form, and the information were gained from different sources may be contradictory. The actor...s of market recognize the power of information but – as in the case of other-type resource utilization – the preparation of this information-power needs more or less investment. Greater part of the small and medium-size agricultural enterprises haven’t tool at all to gain the economical information. After the EU-connection if one of these enterprises will apply for financial support it needs supply continuous and detailed data about own activity for European Community. The main question that can exist exact data-supply without appropriate computerized background. On the other hand if an enterprise has information system it will have the market-goods on the others which don’t have such an investment.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Precision farming has an array of technological equipment, elements and complete systems which are in themselves suitable to create conditions for efficient farming, to reduce environmental load and to provide farmers with optimal return on their investment.
The utilisation of renewable energy sources have come to front with the decreasing fossil fuel stocks, the unsolved problems and fears of nuclear energy and so the cumulating energy dependence. In Hungary the potential of biomass is the largest in renewable energy sources.
During our examinations, we analysed the promotion of producing energ
The expected growth rate of energy plantations will be low, according to the low rate of subsidy intensity (40-60%). The uncertainty of direct area payments decreases the calculability that cuts back the favour of investment in short rotation forestry planting.
The lyophilization is the joint application of freezing and drying. It is an up-to-date conserving procedure, the point of which is that the humidity existing in the frozen humid material is transferred from the solid state directly into the gaseous state at a temperature below 0 oC under vacuum. Out of the procedures applied nowadays, this is...the most tolerant drying process.
With regard to the high investment and operational costs, freeze drying is applied only for valuable, heat-sensitive materials when the technological aim is to preserve such properties as aroma, taste and colour as well as such components as proteins and vitamins. This procedure is suitable for drying and conserving certain foodstuffs, stimulants, organic chemicals, medicines and similar sensitive and valuable materials.
In our institute, we have been conducting freeze drying experiments with regional fruits and vegetables since the year 2005. During the first phase, we examined the heat- and material transfer as well as the abstraction of humidity, while during the second phase we analysed the rehydration ability and nutrient content of the freeze-dried materials as compared to those dried with the method of convection. Moreover we have conducted penetration measurements with a portable hardness tester.
To sum up the results gained so far, we can state that the quality of the lyophilized materials is better than those dried in the traditional way. It originates partly in the fact that the temperature and pressure applied for the freeze drying are smaller and the drying period is far longer than for the convection drying.
In contrast to convection-dried materials, freeze dried materials set in close to their original water-content, keep their original shape and size after being rehydrated. The reason of it the porous, spongy structure (flexible cell wall) of the lyophilized products which is able to take up moisture quickly. In addition, the lyophilized products can be rehydrated faster than those dried in the traditional way.
Regarding the results of the chemical analyses, the following conclusion can be drawn: the vacuum freeze drying results a small decrease of nutrient content and nutritive value for the lyophilized products.
The results of the hardness tests support the statement that the majority of agricultural materials cannot be considered as an ideal flexible body, because during the experiment the flexibility coefficient changed when going from the surface of the material inwards. In addition, the penetration tests also confirm that the surface of the convection-dried vegetables is at least 1.5-3 times harder than that of the freeze-dried products. The reason of it that it takes place during the drying denaturation processes.
The article summarizes the results of our research work listed above, in accordance with our experiments conducted by using the characteristic fruits (apple, plum) of the Nyírség Region.
Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no... unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.
Currently, there are 102 Hungarian-language television channels in Hungary. TV2 Hungary is the second largest commercial television channel. Current trends in the television market in Europe indicate that large channels are expanding their portfolios while at the same time selling their smaller units. This trend has now affected Hungary as well....
After having TV2 for 16 years, MTM-SBS Television Ltd. eventually expanded its portfolio with three new cable channels. The first new channel was FEM3, a channel directed at women, which was launched on January 1, 2010. A year later, the male channel, PRO4, was launched and finally, SuperTV2, primarily a premium entertainment channel, was launched on November 2, 2012. Although the main channel, TV2, remained free, the new pay channels on cable received a significant amount of investment from venture capitalists and Pro7Sat1 for the development of new content.
SuperTV2 is a premium channel. When the channel was launched, the goal was to target those viewers who had turned away from watching the increasingly less-sophisticated content on the commercial channels as well as those who were not drawn to the programming on public television. When the viewer stats were examined, the channel had proven itself. The premium brand of Super TV2 was successful in attracting new viewers and consumers and within a year it had gained a strong foothold over more than 100 other Hungarian-language channels.
During the recent years researchers from different countries have found that our environment is at risk. It has been recognised by the leaders of the member countries and they have made decisions together concerning environmental protection in several agreements, contracts. Unfortunately, these decisions have been weakened and adumbrated on num...erous occasions by certain interests.
However, the energetic exploitation of the biomass has been supported by the economic and social changes of the previous years, more specifically, that of the bio fuels. The significant increase in the price of the traditional energy sources, the import dependency of the countries, the foreseeable exhaustion of the resources, the changes occurred due to joining the EU are all such problems that facilitates the application of bio fuels, as a good solution.
Our country decided to modify the then existed bio fuel component rate of 2% to 5.75% which has to be achieved by 2010. Since then, in March 2007 it has been expanded to 10% until 2020 (concerning energy content). This decision was taken knowing that this year (2006) the bio fuel rate has been 0.5%. However, the rate of 2% has not been achieved even in the EU. One can understand that the implementation cannot be fulfilled without significant political decisions and support. The main reason for this is that the price of bio fuels is not competitive with the present fossil-origin energy prices in Hungary. So in 2007 several regulations were modified. The most important one is perhaps the regulation of the revenue tax, which caused the successful tax-differentiation concerning bio fuels in more member states between 2007 and 2008. Its essence is that the revenue tax is not decreased, but if the fuel does not contain a bio fuel component of 4.4 bulking percentage per litre, „punishment” tax has to be paid. Moreover, on behalf of the implementation, regulations concerning bio fuels and bio fuel components are improving
At present the production and the application of bio fuels without any support are not economical yet. That is why it is important to emphasize the support policy of our country. After joining the Union, the new members can receive some shares from the direct disbursements, but only a tan increasing rate, we can achieve the 100% in 2013, though there is an opportunity for national contribution. Energy plants produced in agriculture receive separate supplementary support which is an advantageous opportunity for the farmers of the sector. Bio fuels cannot only be supported through agriculture, of course, but by research development, investment etc.
All in all, it can be concluded that Hungary seeks to fulfil the EU responsibilities taken and by this, to contribute to the maintenance of the sustainable progress, decrease of environmental pollution and the import dependency of energy sources.
In our study we examine the technical facilities of biogas production in the economic environment of a given region. The region can be considered as typical: it has animal farms, a poultry-processing plant with the characteristic problems of environment load and by-product handling. Biogas can be used for energetic purposes, and, in large scale..., it can be sold as electric energy. The heat coming from the engine and the generator can be collected in heat exchangers and can be used for preparing hot water and for heating. One third of the gained energy is electric, two thirds are heat. The aim of the local owner and the economic management is to increase the rate of cost-effectiveness in general. We examined the tecnnical and economic conditions of establishing a biogas plant (using data of an existing pigfarm). We planned the biogas plant and calculated the expected investment and operational costs and return.
Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of t...he forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.
One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.
There are an enormous amount (2-3 million t/yr) of corn surplus is available year by year in Hungary. Inland utilization is an unsolved problem, whereas export facilities of raw (unprocessed) material could not be regarded as optimal way because of logistical barriers and the very low producer’s price. There are two basic opportunities for th...e export of the surplus of maize with reduced transportational costs and higher value:
animal production and process of bio-ethanol. In Hungarian conditions both of them demand the same raw material so they should compete with each other for maize. Both need financial aid at least for the investment in order to reach profit. Decision makers are influenced by several factors in allocating of national supports between the differential branches, one of them could be the added value developing in the given vertical change. I will introduce and analyze the expectable added values of the abovementioned competitive activities.
The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general,...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.
There were no significant changes in land ownership and use in 2000, compared to the period following the compensation process. Land is mainly owned by people who do not want to use their property, so they generally turn to renting it out to others. Although farming on rented land is performed under various conditions, farms try to rent the lan...ds of better quality. In general, examined farms would like to increase their size by tenancy or land purchase. Buying land is a good investment, considering the price increase in the future, but because of the lack of capital, tenancy remains the main form of territory increase.
Farms which rent land are in connection with a lot of owners, the land within their use is frittered away, it is in a lot of parts. Most rental contracts are written, but the ratio of oral contracts is still quite high. To reduce this ratio is one future aim. One more characteristic of the rental contracts is the dominance of a medium length period – which is acceptable for both the owner and user, but the ratio of short time contracts is still high. Land rent, on average for the examined farms, is quite balanced, it is on the level of about 16.000 HUF/hectare.
The land users mainly pay the same land rent to the owners, but in some cases, there are exceptions. Generally, land rent is a fix cost, but sometimes this cost depends on the level of the yield or the change of product price. Land rent, on average, is 16% within the production costs on the examined farms, which try to choose better and larger lands for rent. Sometimes, farmers can pay higher land rent for the unit of better land, but this is not a general tendency. It is mainly true that they pay the same land rent for the unit, regardless of land quality. Land owners can not interfere in the use of their land within the rental period, and also is a main characteristic of contracts that important particulars are not spelled out sufficiently by the partners. It follows that their content has to be improved in the future.
The article analyses the figures of foreign investments and their territorial distribution and their change due to the impact of the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt. The article studies the consequences of the liquidation of the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt and the issue of restoring allowances that formerly existed on its te...rritory.
The Free Economic Belt that was founded in 1998 and its customs and tax allowances invoked the settlement of affiliated firms of several world corporations, like the “Eurocar”, the “Yadzaki”, or the “Jabil”. However in 2005 the government of that time repealed all allowances granted by the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt, and due to this the increasing dynamics of the amount of foreign stocks which was penetrating into the economy of Transcarpathia started to decrease. Many companies halted their work which went alongside with closing-down several thousands of workplaces. The working “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt had a positive effect on the social and economic indices of the region, so discussions regarding its restoration have already been started between the president of Ukraine and the governor of the region.
Investments always contain risks, as data referring to the future are planned and uncertain. Therefore, besides feasibility analyses we need to perform risk analyses, as well. Through statistic simulation methods, our aim is to examine how uncertain and prospective data as risk factors affect investment-profitability indices. On the other hand,... our aim is to find out the optimal innovation – financing decisions by using decision optimizing
Hungary is one of the countries in Europe which has the largest amount of water supply because of its geographical conditions. Water comes from the surrounding mountains makes this water supply even more bigger. This precious water base needs to be treated responsibly and the most efficient way. The Civaqua program is a project with the above-m...entioned conditions, made by the Local Government of Debrecen and the Water Directory of Trans-Tiszanian Region. This project deals with the exploitation of the East-Main Chanel’s water for social welfare, agricultural and inverimental protection purposes in Debrecen and its agglomeration. The aim of this paper is to give an overall insight into the investment plans of Civaqua program and it is also examines its positive direct and indirect effects on the region.
According to the data indicating the decline and restructuring during the past decade, as well as the trend in the European Union member states, it can be expected that the role of traditional agriculture and fish production in direct rural employment decrease further. This also values those strategic directions for restructuring that will lead... fishculture from quantity driven to quality production along with sustainable development (i.e. environmental conscious production) and multifunctional farming. This way the economic and social tensions caused by the concentration of the production and labour output can be mitigated.
It is laid in the 1257/1999 Act on rural Development that farmers that enrol the agri-environmental scheme should follow the “Good Agricultural Practice” on the whole managed area. In case of agri-environmental schemes this is a precondition for which no grants are given.
The adaptation of “Good Agricultural Practice” in fishproduction,where it is called: “Good Pond Culture Practice” is considered important on the basis of the above mentioned. This programme is undertaken in co-operation with the Research Institute for Aquaculture, Fisheries and Irrigation, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development and the Association of Hungarian Fish Farmers and Product Council.
The European Commission proposed the formulation of the European Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EFAF) for the period 2007-20013, which will replace the Financial Instruments for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), but it also consists of several new elements and will be working differently, too. According to the proposal the budget for the Fund will be nearly 5 billion EUR (4963 million EUR). The development level of aquaculture and fisheries and the social and economic significance in the given member state will be considered when distributing the Fund between the Member States.
According to the plan the Fund is organised along five priority axes, of which the most important for the Hungarian fisheries sector is No. II: Aquaculture and the processing and marketing of aquaculture and fisheries products. The main measure areas are the followings:
1. investment support for aquaculture;
2. support for aquatic-environmental schemes;
3. environmental- and animal health issues;
4. investments in processing and marketing
In case of accessing support under measure area No. 2 farms are obliged to meet the requirements of the scheme beyond the “good management practice” for 5 years, which is to be supervised by the approved body of the Member State. For this reason our work is considered to be substantial.
Approval of the application of “Good Pond Culture Practice” is based on two elements: first the prevailing environmental and nature conservation regulations, as well as the list of controllable conditions in the new agri-environmental agreements are to be met. “Good Pond Culture Practice” are to be conducted on the whole farm area. Its main elements are:
- nutrition management,
- pond maintenance,
- animal welfare (storage and over-wintering).
Different methods for evaluating property have gained greater importance in agriculture since the change of regime. The open market evaluation could be the best method if the agricultural property had significant turnover, which could serve as a reliable comparison. However, there is no notable turnover, and selling is scarce. And, when there i...s some, the sales contracts are not available. On the other hand, the open market evaluation is almost the only one assessing method in Western Europe and in the United States. The matrix comparing market data in my methodological development helps to estimate the effects of the elements which determinate real estate value of farms.
Another method for evaluating farm property is the discounted future earnings. Enterprises are able to produce series of income continuously during their working periods, which can be considered as perpetuity. This is the base of the discounted future earning evaluation. Determination of income generating capacity is not an easy task. It is also difficult to choose the proper rate of capitalization. If this rate is higher than the usual level, the property will be underestimated. If it is lower, the property will be overrated. According to my calculations the profitability of certain farms of animal breeding may be evaluated under different operating conditions. Furthermore, the capitalisation interest rate may be determined in an objective way.
The problem of applying the depreciated replacement cost evaluation method is that there are big deviations among investment costs in tenders of contractors; moreover the estimations of special depreciation forms are rather subjective. One of the process’s greatest difficulties for reliability is that it is doubtful whether depreciated replacement cost could reach the real market value. The utilisation of this method may be spread further in the future by standardising average gross replacement cost of building as well as by measuring depreciation more objectively.