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The effect of breed and stage of lactation on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 23, 2019
37-45

The microbiological quality of the milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. The microbiological status of raw cow milk can be influenced by many factors. Our aim was to determine whether there was a difference between the microbiological quality of milk of two different cow breeds (Hol...stein Friesian and Jersey) kept and milked in the same conditions, and how the microbiological quality of the raw cow milk changed during lactation (beginning, mid, and end). Samples were taken and analysed in July, August and September in 2018 from two dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar county. During the conducted studies, the total plate count (TPC), the coliform count, the Staphylococcus aureus count and the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) count of raw milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the milk of the Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds in the case of TPC. However, the mean coliform count of milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the mean coliform count of milk samples taken from Jersey cows. S. aureus was detected in one of the twelve milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows, and in two of the eleven milk samples taken from Jersey cows. CNS was found in larger amount in milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Both TPC and CNS count were significantly higher (P<0.05) in individual milk samples taken at the end stage of lactation, than in samples taken in the earlier stages of lactation from Farm “A”. However, in the case of Farm “B”, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in colony counts at different stages of lactation. S. aureus was only present in milk samples that collected from cows, which were at the beginning and middle stages of lactation. Testimg the hemolysin production ability of S. aureus strains isolated from the raw milk samples, only weak hemolysis was observed on blood agar. In case of antibiotic resistance testing, it was found that all strains were susceptible to cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole.

Based on the results of our studies, staphylococci were detected in a higher amount in the milk of Holstein Friesian cows, and coliform bacteria were detected in a higher number in the milk of Jersey cows. Summing up the results of the milk samples taken from the different stages of lactation in one of the farms, it can be concluded that higher TPC and CNS count could be detected at the end stage of lactation than in the samples taken from the earlier stages of lactation. The fact that at the end of lactation the microorganisms could be detected in a higher colony count may be related to the fact that teats could be damaged during lactation by the milking machine, which increased the chance of imvading the microorganisms into the udder.

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163
The role of type traits of dairy cattles in long productive life
Published May 23, 2006
11-18

In the last few decades, a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Additionally, the reproduction biology of the population was adversely affected by keeping and feeding technologies. Productive lifetime has shortened and the service period has lengthened. However, profitable milk production... requires cows with longer productive lives and larger life-time productions. In our study, we made a comparison between production, culling causes, and type traits of culled Holstein Friesian cows after first calving and of cows with a minimum of eight lactations. We established that the first lactation production of cows with longer productive lives was more or less homogeneous. Disease of metabolism as well as digestive and respiratory problems, were the main causes of the culling of cows with short productive lives, and reproduction and udder problems as well as low production, were the main causes of the culling of cows with long productive lives. We found a significant difference in the distributions of strength, body depth, dairy form, croup width, rear leg side view, foot angle, fore udder attachment and teat placement between the two groups. Furthermore, we established that cows with lower stature, less strength, a somewhat deeper body, better dairy form, narrower croup width, smaller foot angle, looser fore udder attachment and some outside teat placement had longer productive lives.

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41
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Production and disposition of purebred Jersey populations
Published November 24, 2008
89-96

In Hungary crossbreeding wit Jersey has been in practice since 2004. Uniquely in the Hungarian history of the Jersey breed two times fifty head pregnant heifers were imported in 2006. The aim of our study is to present through the description of the production and the type traits of the population the inherent possibilities of Jersey. The breed... is presented by the figures of the rolling lactations, 305 day milk production, correlations between the traits and by the results of the evaluation of type traits. Analyses of the data were done by using independent samples t-test.
Based on data of 87 cows the average number of days in milk  is 308 and 48 cows has finished lactation. During the rolling lactation they produced 5050 kg milk with 5.34% fat and 3.8% protein content.
The first lactation Jersey cows’ production when corrected to 305 days was 5089 kg milk with 5.35% fat and 3.81% protein. Between the herds there was significant difference in milk kg, amount of fat produced, protein content and amount of protein produced. On the two farms distribution of cows belonging to different production levels is very different. The biggest difference is when categorized by the amount of milk produced.
Correlation between the milk kg and fat kg is the greatest (r=0.950). Similar values were obtained for the correlation between fat and protein kg (r=0.919) and for the milk kg and fat kg (r=0,898). 
Disposition of the Jersey cows is very well balanced. Their stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle and pin width is favorable, the average scores are between 4.5 and 6.5. The leg of the cows is a bit sickly, and is hocking in a little with medium-low angled hoof. Average values of all traits describing the udder are between 4 and 5. Cows belonging to the two herds differ by disposition. Significant difference exists in the following traits: body depth, dairy form, pin width, rear leg - side view, rear leg, rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, teat length. The
Jersey population imported to Hungary has a final score of 78 points which equals with the “good” qualification. 

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Effect of the claw disorders on production performance in dairy cattle
Published February 3, 2016
15-19

The aim of the study was the influence of claw disorders on production traits in dairy cattle. Observed were claw traits as claw angle, claw length, heel index, claw height, claw diagonal and claw width. Right hind claw after functional trimming was evaluated. Occurrence of claw disorders like interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE), di...gital dermatitis (DD) and sole ulcer (SV) as well as the progress of disease were observed. Basic summary and variation statistics was performed by the SAS software. Two herds were included in the study. Holstein dairy cows (n=101) produced 11 875 kg of milk, 468 kg (3.94%) of fat and 396 kg (3.34%) of proteins. Holstein cows were affected with IDHE in 22 cases, with DD in 6 cases and with sole ulcer in 10 cases. Slovak Simmental dairy cows (n=101) produced 5834 kg of milk, 258 kg (4.44%) of fat and 209 kg (3.59%) of proteins. Slovak Simmental cows were affected with IDHE in 8 cases, with DD in 5 cases and with sole ulcer in 19 cases. Observed was that claw disorders caused deviations of milk production.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published December 16, 2012
31-34

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.
After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
Published March 24, 2015
49-52

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.

After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Study of animal welfare status and heat stress measures applied in dairy cow herds in Hungary
Published October 5, 2010
79-82

The following material focuses on dairy production and climate related issues in Hungary. All the data was gathered during PhD
project: Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary. Relations between animal welfare and climate changes expressed by
increase in temperature are described. Extremely hot weather creates hard co...nditions for milking cows when animal welfare is highly
compromised. From the preliminary results obtained one might formulate hypothesis that there are still areas on the farms where immediate
actions should be taken to give a relief to cows in hot seasons. There was found significant number of farms with too many animals per one
water trough, dirty water troughs, limited access to water troughs and hazardous surface for cows in critical places where many animals are
gathered. Calves with not sufficient amount of water in hot days and other parts of the year were reported. Silage exposure to the sun and
mouldy food in a silage clump was also found to be an important factor in monitoring impact of warm weather. Half of the farms letting
animals to spend time on the pasture or paddock did not provide shade for animals. Low conception rate of first insemination was predicted
to be influenced by heat stress, what is proved by lack of heat decreasing measures taken on the farms.

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44
Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
Published November 20, 2011
31-35

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons done on dairy breeds in Hung...ary.
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jerseys turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshire, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the apparent ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however, this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Although this dairy breed is the lightest, when the pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
Published December 16, 2012
51-56

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons in dairy breeds in Hungary.&...nbsp;
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jersey turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshires, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the seemingly ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Though this dairy breed is the lightest, when pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Examinations connected with productive life in Hungarian Holstein Friesian populations
Published November 15, 2007
32-39

In Hungary, an intensive dairy population has developed in the last few decades as the result of upgrading to Holstein-Friesian. Intensive milk production, adjusted with housing and feeding, unfavorably affected secondary traits. The number of days between two calvings has increased remarkably and productive lifetime has decreased drastically. ...In the interest of profitable milk production, it is important that cows should be able to stay in the herd as long as possible, in order to have great lifetime productivity.
The aim of this paper was to compare the production and pedigree of cows with eight or more lactations to cows which were culled after their first lactation.
It can be stated that cows with longer herd lives produced more milk in their first lactation than those which were culled after their first lactation. When analyzing the pedigree effect of sires, this could not be proven, although some bulls, mainly of Hungarian origin, appeared at a higher frequency. In the analysis of the effect of dams, it was found that many of the offspring of the cows with longer herd lives had similarly great lifetime productivity. Correlation between herdlife and milk production quantity traits was found to be mild or stronger (r>0,60), while according to our analysis, there is no correlation between herdlife and milk production quality traits.

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Evaluation of Origin and Conformation of Excellent Cows with Long Productive Lives
Published December 6, 2005
13-17

In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs ...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.

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91
Identification of cow’s and buffalo’s milk and dairy product using a DNA-based method
Published November 13, 2012
279-282

Aim of our study was the optimization of a DNA method, that is appropriate for reliable, low cost identification of animal species in milk and dairy product (cheese) and to determine the ratio of species. Mitochondrial DNA was used in our work to analyse buffalo/cow milk mixtures contained different ratio of bovine milk such as 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, ...1.5%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% (v/v%). Buffalo cheese were produced using buffalo and cows milk (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% – v/v% cows milk in buffalo milk). In case of milk mixtures, using species specific primers, the PCR assay showed a 0.5 v/v% detection limit. Cattle, in the buffalo/cows milk 99.9/0.1 v/v% mixture, was not detectable. The identification of buffalo and cows DNA in cheese was successful. The intensity of eletroforetic PCR fragment indicated the increase of cow milk ratio in milk and cheese samples as well.

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Comparative analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by molecular microbiology methods
Published July 16, 2007
34-39

Staphylococcus aureus is a very important pathogen for dairy farms and milk processing plants. Subclinical mastitis is often caused by this species, and it can contaminate bulk tank milk when milking cows are suffering from mastitis. Additionally, thermostable enterotoxins (SE) produced by some types of this bacterium can cause food poisoning.<...br>The aim of our research was to examine the number of S. aureus in bulk tank milk in two dairy farms and the enterotoxin-producing ability, genetic relation (pulsotype) and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains from different sources (bulk tank milk, udder quarter milk and environment).
The results show that the mean number of S. aureus of bulk tank milk of two farms significantly differed (P<0.05). Fourteen isolates were selected for further molecular genetic studies (five isolates were from bulk tank milk and nine isolates were from udder quarter milk). S. aureus was not recovered from the environmental samples. Three of the fourteen isolates (21.4%) tested by multiplex PCR were positive for SE genes. Two isolates carried one gene (seb) and one isolate carried two genes (seg and sei). The fourteen strains were classified into three pulsotypes and two subtypes at 86% similarity level. Isolates from bulk tank milk (n=5), were divided into 2 pulsotypes (A, C) and one subtype (C1). The isolates from udder quarter milk (n=9) belonged to three different pulsotypes (A, B, C) and two subtypes (A1, C1). The distribution of pulsotypes in the present study revealed genetic relationship between S. aureus isolated from udder quarter milk and bulk tank milk. This could be explained by the fact that in farms with a high number of infected cows, these cows could represent the main source of contamination. The results of the antibiotic resistance investigations show, that all strains were susceptible to methicillin, cefoxitin, lincomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Thirteen out of fourteen strains were resistant to penicillin (A and C pulsotypes, A1 and C1 subtypes) and just one isolate was susceptible (B pulsotype) to all antibiotics tested.

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66
Correlation between body condition change and reproduction parameters of Holstein-Frisian cows after calving
Published December 1, 2010
49-52

The authors examined the body condition with relation to reproduction of Holstein-Friesian cows on three dairy farms in the South Plain region. During the examination they analyzed the data of 516 births of 494 Holstein-Friesian cows. They were trying to find correlation between the first service, the service period and the service rates. The e...xaminations with regard to the correlations were different from the ones published in the professional literature. The body condition at the time of calving affected the interval from calving to the first service but not the conception
rates or the service period. The examinations did not prove any correlations between body condition changes and reproduction.

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146
Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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Effect of vitamin e and selenium supplementation on the antioxidant content of milk and dairy products in dairy cows
Published November 20, 2011
9-12

In 2007, the aim of the Ányos Jedlik program and the call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants - in this case: vitamin E and seleniu...m – used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an increased level of vitamin E and selenium content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E and selenium as feedadditives can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E and selenium in the milk and also in the diary products.

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The trend of cowmilk yield, its compostion and the body condition during the lactation
Published December 21, 2009
69-73

The authors examined the data of 2767 trial milkings andthe months Body Condition Scores of 479 Holstein dairy cows. The condition loss was significant between the 30-60th days. The improvement of BCS begins only after the 120th day. The change in the milk protein and milk fat content were close after the condition changing. In each period of t...he lactation the closeness of the relationship among the condition, the milk quantity and the milk composition were different. In the aspect of the milk quantity the most significant difference was between the 2.5 and 4 BCS cows (6.68 kg) in the last period of the lactation.

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138
Analysis of longevity in Holstein Friesian cattle using proteomic approaches
Published July 31, 2012
21-25

The aim of the present study was to determine marker proteins those are associated with functional longevity of dairy cattle. Holstein-Friesian cows were grouped based on their performance as follows: group 1) individuals with good longevity traits; group 2) short production life because of poor reproduction traits; group 3) short production li...fe with low milk yield. Twelve individuals were sampled in each group, blood and milk samples were collected from cows. Blood samples were analysed with two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLCMS/MS. The milk samples were analysed with MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS. Using the optimized gel based proteomic approach,
we have succesfully separated 143 proteins in the group1, 139 proteins in the group2 and 136 proteins in the group3, but we could not find significant differences between groups in the expression pattern. Using MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-IonTrap MS, we have found eleven protein sequences those were expressed only in the samples of good longevity group.

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Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary – looking for causes of lameness
Published November 20, 2011
25-29

In the last 20-30 years, lameness in cattle was found to be third the most influential disease next to mastitis and reproduction disorders. Studies have been established to explore reasons for lameness and prevention. The problem with more robust prevention plans is that knowledge and research evidence is not strong enough to run an effective p...revention plan. The aim of the research is to look for reasons of lameness by observing number of cows on 6 farms during 2 lactations. Performance data will be put together to body condition score (BCS) and lameness scores. Other examination is focused on monitoring of 40 farms. This part of the project is more related to extension, collecting and sharing solutions for decreasing lameness. Producers are advised what kind of measures are possible to reduce occurrence of lameness. Effectiveness of those actions will be measured at the end of the study. The first preliminary results show lack in almost all preventive measures needed to be taken in minimizing lameness. Those areas are related to poor facilities, lack of straw, problems with labor and basic management.

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Effect of using antioxidants as feed additives in the diet of dairy cows on the vitamin E and lycopene content of milk
Published December 1, 2010
69-72

In 2007, the aim of an Ányos Jedlik program and call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants – in this case: vitamin E and lycopene ... used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an
increased level of vitamin E and lycopene content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E as feed-additive can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E in the milk. The use of lycopene as feedadditive also gave good results. At the beginning of the experiment, the lycopene content of the milk was below the detection limit, while in the post-feeding milk samples the lycopene became detectable. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that further experiments and analyses are needed regarding the quality of food of animal origin and animal health.

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Microbiological quality of bulk tank raw milk from two dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary
Published December 28, 2018
105-112

Two main channels have been identified to be responsible for microbiological contamination of raw milk and milk products. Firstly, contamination has occurred due to udder infection from the cow or the blood which harbours most bacteria that come in contact with the raw milk. Secondly, via external factors (may include faeces, skin, contaminated... water, environment etc.) which are associated with the operation of milking. There is direct contact with the milk and/or surfaces before, during or after the milking, posing public health risk and economic decline. The aim of this study was to examine the bacteriological quality of bulk tank raw milk samples collected from two different size dairy farms (Farm 1 and Farm 2) of different housing forms (cubicle loose and deep litter) in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary in July, 2017. Three samples were taken from each farm, and the total plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count, and yeast and mould count were determined in them.

The results clearly showed low level of all measured bacteria group load in Farm 1 samples in comparison to Farm 2 with the exception of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) which represented high level in general, indicating significant difference (P<0.05). The mean value of total plate count in Farm 2 samples was higher (1.0 × 105 CFU/mL) than Farm 1 samples (2.8 × 104 CFU/mL). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in mean count of coliforms in raw milk samples between Farm 1 and Farm 2. Similarly, results of E. coli were significantly different (P<0.05) with mean count of 1.44 × 102 CFU/mL and 2.02 × 103 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively.

Results of Staphylococcus aureus also showed significant difference (P<0.05) with mean count of 9.7 × 101 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and 6.28 × 102 CFU/mL for Farm 2. The mean of mould count recorded was 1.07 × 102 CFU/mL and 4.93 × 102 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively. The recorded mean of yeast count was 1.68 × 103 CFU/mL and 3.41 × 103 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively; however, both farms showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in terms of mean of mould and yeast count. Although Farm 2 produced six times lower milk quantity than Farm 1, the measured microbial parameters were high. Both farms’ microbiological numbers were higher above the permitted limit values as stated by Regulation (EC) No 853/2004, Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.).

This could be an indication of non-conformance to effective GMP, ineffective pre–milking disinfection or udder preparation, poor handling and storage practice, time and temperature abuse and inadequate Food Safety Management System Implementation. Therefore, our recommendation is as follows; establish control measures for pre- and postharvest activities involved in the milking process which would be an effective approach to reduce contamination of the raw milk by pathogenic microorganisms from these farms, strict sanitation regime and hygiene protocol be employed and applied to cows, all equipment, contact surfaces and minimize handling of the milk prior, during and after milking. This will also serve as scientific information to the producers for continual improvement in their operations.

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Possibility of oil seeds in feeding dairy cows
Published March 20, 2014
67-73

The efforts to modify the fatty acid composition of milk have intensified with health conscious nutrition coming to the forefront.This experiment of ours was designed to investigate to what extent the natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds, can influence the fatty acid composition of cow’s milk.Further information was gained about fee...ding of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into the technology of a large-scale dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and whole, untreated linseed, as part of a total mixed ration. In case of saturated fatty acids when supplementing with whole rapeseed the most significant change was observable in the concentration of the caprylic acid, capric acid, undecylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, stearic acid. In case of unsaturated fatty acids the quantity of oleic acid enhanced considerably. When observating the feeding with whole linseed the concentration of many saturated fatty acids lowered (caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid). The quantity of some unsaturated fatty acids was showing a distinct rise after feeding with linseed, this way the oleic acid, α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid. The aim of the study was to produce food which meets the changed demands of customers, as well.

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Study on the Work Organization at Dairy Farms
Published September 8, 2020
293-296

Joining the European Union Hungarian producers have advantages but they need to solve some problems too. Only those producers can compete who will be able to produce extra quality milk. However the circumstances of milk production are not up to the task.
The author examined the work organization of 7 dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County. Data ...were collected about the situation of farms, equipment of barns, objets of production, work force, qualification of workers, and productivity of work. He examined the applied motivation methods at farms. He concluded that as the number of cows per farm increases work productivity increases too. From the examination it appeared that family farms applied different motivation system from bigger producer organizations. The author put forward proposals for motivation possibilities to improve milk quality, atmosphere, and general feeling of workers.

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Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary – looking for causes of lameness
Published December 16, 2012
47-50

In the last 20–30 years lameness in cattle was found to be third the most influential disease next to mastitis and reproduction disorders. Studies have been established to explore reasons for lameness and prevention. The problem with more robust prevention plans is that knowledge and research evidence is not strong enough to run an effective ...prevention plan. The aim of the research is to look for reasons of lameness by observing number of cows on 6 farms during 2 lactations. Performance data will be put together to body condition score (BCS) and lameness scores. Other examination is focused on monitoring of 40 farms. This part of the project is more related to extension, collecting and sharing solutions for decreasing lameness. Producers are advised what kind of measures are possible to reduce occurrence of lameness. Effectiveness of those actions will be measured at the end of the study. The first preliminary results show lack in almost all preventive measures needed to be taken in minimising lameness. Those areas are related to poor facilities, lack of straw, problems with labour and basic management.

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Estimating Genetic Parameters using a Random Regression Model
Published November 24, 2008
53-55

One of the most important part of the genetic evaluation using a random regression model is the estimation of variance components. This is the topic of many papers because the large computational costs. We can use restricted maximum likelihood (REML), Gibbs sampling and ℜ method for the estimation of genetic parameters. The variance component...s are necessary to calculate the heritabilities and repeatabilities.
The aim of our paper is to estimate the variance components using a random regression repeatability model from test day data set of Hungarian Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and to analyse the change of additive genetic and permanent environmental variance, heritability and repeatability over lactation.

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