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Upgrading breeding value estimation in beef cattle
Published September 5, 2018

This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the gene...tic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.

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Sequence heterogeneity of nSSR and cpDNA loci of Cucurbits (Citrullus sp.)
Published November 15, 2007

The evolution of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) microsatellites from the 15th century (Debrecen); 13th (Buda); and 18th century, (Pannonhalma) were analyzed. Microsatellite (nSSR, nuclear simple sequence repeat) and cpDNA profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains were compared to modern water melon cultivars and landraces. Sixteen pri...mer pairs were applied. Sequence analysis at the (CT)26 and cpDNA trnV loci revealed a (CT)3 and Adenin deletions, respectively, form the current water melon cultivar compared to the medieval sample. Cila-1), a new LTR retrotansposon has been described. For morphological reconstruction, a dendrogram produced by SPSS11 based on the presence versus absence of 24 phenotypic characters were also analyzed.

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Experiments on the Nutrient Removal and Retention of an Integrated Pond System
Published December 6, 2005

A combined intensive-extensive fishpond system developed for the purification and re-use of intensive fishpond effluent water was studied during a three-year experimental period. The investigated pond system consists of five small-size intensive culture ponds of 1 ha total water surface area with 1.5 m water depth and a 20 ha extensive culture ...pond with 1.0 m average water depth. The water was recirculated between the intensive and extensive ponds with around 60 days retention time in the extensive treatment pond.
Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget and water purifying capacity were described and evaluated by means of regular measurements of nutrient concentrations in the water and sediment. During the three-year test period, 81.5% of organic carbon, 54.7% of nitrogen and 72.2% of phosphorus were retained by the system as a percentage of the total input of each nutrient. A significant amount of the total nitrogen input was removed by the harvested fish, which was much higher than in traditional fishponds or intensive fish culture systems. The efficiency of nutrient removal is clearly indicated by the 27.3% nitrogen assimilation.
Only a small percentage of the total nutrient input was discharged into the environment during fish harvest, which was 9.0% for organic carbon, 13.2% for nitrogen and 12.1% for phosphorus. The combination of intensive and extensive fishponds with water recirculation resulted in significant reduction of nutrient discharge into the surrounding aquatic environment, primarily due to the high nutrient processing and retention capacity of the extensive fishpond ecosystem.

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Comparative analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by molecular microbiology methods
Published July 16, 2007

Staphylococcus aureus is a very important pathogen for dairy farms and milk processing plants. Subclinical mastitis is often caused by this species, and it can contaminate bulk tank milk when milking cows are suffering from mastitis. Additionally, thermostable enterotoxins (SE) produced by some types of this bacterium can cause food poisoning.<>The aim of our research was to examine the number of S. aureus in bulk tank milk in two dairy farms and the enterotoxin-producing ability, genetic relation (pulsotype) and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains from different sources (bulk tank milk, udder quarter milk and environment).
The results show that the mean number of S. aureus of bulk tank milk of two farms significantly differed (P<0.05). Fourteen isolates were selected for further molecular genetic studies (five isolates were from bulk tank milk and nine isolates were from udder quarter milk). S. aureus was not recovered from the environmental samples. Three of the fourteen isolates (21.4%) tested by multiplex PCR were positive for SE genes. Two isolates carried one gene (seb) and one isolate carried two genes (seg and sei). The fourteen strains were classified into three pulsotypes and two subtypes at 86% similarity level. Isolates from bulk tank milk (n=5), were divided into 2 pulsotypes (A, C) and one subtype (C1). The isolates from udder quarter milk (n=9) belonged to three different pulsotypes (A, B, C) and two subtypes (A1, C1). The distribution of pulsotypes in the present study revealed genetic relationship between S. aureus isolated from udder quarter milk and bulk tank milk. This could be explained by the fact that in farms with a high number of infected cows, these cows could represent the main source of contamination. The results of the antibiotic resistance investigations show, that all strains were susceptible to methicillin, cefoxitin, lincomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Thirteen out of fourteen strains were resistant to penicillin (A and C pulsotypes, A1 and C1 subtypes) and just one isolate was susceptible (B pulsotype) to all antibiotics tested.

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Will there be a horticultural triangle (cluster)? Thoughts about the reconstruction of the Hungarian horticulture between two European regions
Published September 14, 2005

The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
in the North Great Plain Region and – in a w...ider sense – in Hungary to a standard being competitive even in European terms. With the synthesis
of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.

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The effect of keeping technology on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published November 24, 2008

The importance of the quality of raw milk increased after Hungary had joined to the EU. On delivery of raw milk, the microbiological quality, especially total plate count of the milk is very important. Twenty-two farms (7 large, 4 medium-sized, and 11 small farms) were included in the study. We considered the different farm size, keeping- and m...ilking circumstances during the selection of farms. The examined large farms use loose housing system (cubicle, deep litter) and milking parlour. Most of them use preand post-milking disinfection. In the medium-sized farms, loose,
deep litter and tie-stall housing system, as well as milking parlour, pipeline milking and bucket milking occurred. All of them use preand post-milking disinfection. Small farms use tie-stall housing system, bucket milking and udder preparation by water. Unfortunately, they do not use pre- or post-milking disinfection. In the large and medium-sized farms mainly Holstein Friesian, in the small farms Hungarian Simmental breeds can be found.
The aim of our research was to examine the microbiological status of the raw milk produced in dairy farms (total plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count, psychrotroph bacteria count, furthermore yeast and mold count); sources of the contamination; connection between the microbiological quality of produced milk and housing-, milking technologies of farms; furthermore the hygienic circumstances of milking and milk handling of the farms, by the examination of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli contamination.
During the examination of the connection between the different farm sizes, various housing- and milking forms and the microbiological characteristics we observed similar tendencies in the case of total plate count, coliform count, yeast and molds count, furthermore psychrotroph bacteria count. The value of  these parameters was significantly higher in small farms, and infarms which use tie-stall housing forms, bucket milking, udder preparation with water, and which do not use pre- and post-milking disinfection.
The results showed that besides cooling, the milking procedure and the type of udder preparation had the largest effect on the total plate count. Statistical analysis shows that in medium and small farms the combination of pipeline milking – tie stall housing system – disinfectant preparation of the udder; in large farms the combination of milking parlour – loose cubicle housing system – dry preparation of the udder are the most appropriate in the aspect of the total plate count. We experienced that in farms where the hygienic instructions are not followed – and therefore
equipment used during the milking and handling of milk is very contaminated – or rather the separation of mastitic cows’ milk is not appropriate, different microorganisms may contaminate the produced milk. 

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The examination of presumed Escherichia coli count of raw milk samples on several milk production farms
Published May 23, 2006

For dairy farms, it is of great importance to insure the appropriate hygienic status of milk and to examine it regularly. Escherichia coli, belonging to the coliform bacteria type of, is a good indicator of contamination, and therefore suitable for characterising the hygienic condition of milk production.
The aim of our research was to the connection between the Escherichi coli count in bulk tank milk and housing and milking technologies of different-sizes farms. We examined the relation using various statistical methods.
Analysing the connection between the E. coli count and the farm size we found no significant difference between the farms. On the basis of the mean values of the E. coli count, we can say that the hygienic conditions are appropriate for mid-sized farms, and tolerable for large farms. We found differences in the hygienic status among the small farms. Half of the eight small farms, had no adequate hygiene. The results of the analysis of the quality categories show that the probability of inadequate quality milk was the largest on small farms (37.5%).
Comparing the various housing and milking methods with each other, there were numerical differences in the E. coli count, but these differences were not significant. We got higher E. coli count values on those farms using tied stall barn and bucket milking installation. The reason for this could be that in cases of farms using bucket milking installation, it is harder to meet the requirements.
After forming groups by farm size, housing and milking methods, we found that the E. coli counts are adequate on mid-size farms using various housing and milking methods; and tolerable on those large farms using loose housing stable and a milking parlour. At the same time, we found inadequate E. coli counts on the smaller farms using tied stall barns and bucket milking installation.
The results show that if there is suitable attention, independent of farm size, housing and milking procedure, it is possible to produce milk with low E. coli counts, and to insure appropriate hygienic conditions.
Further detailed examinations are needed to decide which factors of housing and milking technologies influence the E. coli count of bulk tank milk.

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Survey of the environmental impacts of pond fish farming
Published May 23, 2006

The aim of this study was to survey the nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter loads and the discharge of fishponds. The inputs and outputs of nutrient amounts of fishponds and their sources are described. The impact of a fishpond on the nutrient loads of receiver waters was determined. The investigations of this study were to determine and ev...aluate the nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter budget of fishponds representing different technologies and areas.

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