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Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
Published December 21, 2008
127-136

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu... content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

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Study regarding the influence of the nPK fertilizers use in long term trial on heavy metals concentration in wheat grains
Published May 6, 2013
107-109

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper presents research results obtained in stationary experiments, carried out at Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, regarding the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, on Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni concentration on wheat grains.

The minimum concentration of cadmium in wheat grains was recorded in the case of the unfertilized plot N0P0K0, 0.12 mg kg-1, and maximum value 0.22 mg kg-1, was registered at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, relative difference relative to control was 84.2%.

Lead concentration had the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, the value (0.4 mg kg-1) being under the maximum allowed (1.0 mg kg-1). In case of the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, the lead concentration had the highest value, 0.47 mg kg-1, but even in this case it was located beneath the maximum limit allowed.

In all four systems of fertilization, copper has not exceeded the maximum allowed limit (5 mg kg-1), the values have been comprised between 1.68 mg kg-1 at the unfertilized plot and 2.81 mg kg-1 at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120. In other plots of fertilization copper had concentrations of 1.97 mg kg-1, at the fertilized plot with N80P40K40, and 2.78 at the fertilized plot with N80P80K80.

The lowest concentration of zinc, 26.47 mg kg-1, has been registered in the control N0P0K0. In the other fertilization plots studied, the zinc concentrations had the following values: 27.66 mg kg-1 (N80P40K40), (N80P80K80) 29.87 mg kg-1 and 33.62 mg kg-1 (N160P80K120).

Nickel has registered the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, 3.47 mg kg-1. The fertilized plot with N160P80K120 had the highest value 4.94 mg kg-1, with 42.39% higher compared to the control N0P0K0.

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Effect of Irrigation on Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)
Published September 15, 2003
30-35

We have been continually examining the fertilizer and irrigation reaction of commonly cultivated maize hybrids for nearly twenty years at the Látókép experimental station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University.
Upon evaluating the results, it can be established that year significantly influences the size of yield. Be...tween the years of 1999 and 2002, in the average of applied fertilizers the difference is 3,4 t/ha, but even in irrigated treatments it reaches 3 t/ha. This is more than the effect of irrigation. Of the applied agrotechnical elements, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is the greatest and can even be greater than the effect of year. The yield increasing effect of fertilization can be reliably detected with small and medium doses, but at higher doses a plateau section is reached, where it is not worth applying more nutrients. Cultivation with irrigation can only be done with appropriate nutrient supply, due to the positive correlation of the two factors. The positive correlation also means that if the water supply of the plant declines, less fertilizer is needed for safe production. The two factors (irrigation and fertilization) have to be increased or decreased at the same time.
According to the experiment, in unirrigated treatments, 90 kg/ha nitrogen and the related phosphorus and potassium are enough, while in irrigated treatments this was 120 kg.

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
Published September 5, 2018
253-265

Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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