No 24 (2006)

Published October 11, 2006

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Articles

Comparison of RAPD and AFLP Analysis in Some Maize (Zea mays L.) Lines and Hybrids
3-7

The use of molecular markers to enhance plant breeding efforts is being widely studied. DNA-based fingerprinting technologies (RAPD and AFLP) have proven useful in genetic similarity studies. We estimated different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and hybrids originated from mutant ones based on their genetic differences.
We carried out RAPD... analysis with different primers and the 707 (CCCAACACCC) and 792 (CAACCCACAC) primers with 50% similarities provided quite good DNA fragments. By applying the DNA based-AFLP technique, we had very dense DNA fingerprinting. We differentiated 15-32 polymorphic bands, the highest number of bands were found in P-T/H-CA (32). AFLP seems to be the more efficient method of comparing genetic similarities/differences among different genotypes.

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Advancement of a Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Selection System
8-11

All the research in Hungary and other countries in Europe focus on improving the quality of crops and increasing the competitiveness of production.
In this respect, we have to advance the conventional technological elements, reduce the application of pesticides and fertilizers, and produce new varieties suitable for environmentally-sound pro...duction. In our crop breeding programs, we applied conventional and biotechnological methods (embryo rescue and double haploid methods) in order to get somaclonal and gametoclonal variations.
We produced winter wheat lines (HP-31-95, HP-82-96) by traditional way, which have high baking qualities and high nutrient efficiency. Some diseases can limit the quantity and quality of a wheat crop. We examined several wheat diseases in our winter wheat candidates, and we found that our progenies have resistance to leaf rust.
With respect to a serious problem was the small quantity of applied fertilizers and the other externals, our research focused onto advance a common wheat selection system, with the help of it, we can handle these problems. We have summarized that our selected progenies can compete with the registered varieties with quality and environmental respect.

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The Effect of Year and Irrigation on the Yield Quantity and Quality of the Potato
12-16

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area reduced dramatically in the last few decades, additionally we are lagging behind the Western European countries as regards yields and the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, the unpredictable market conditions, bad consumption habits... and many times unfortunately the lack of quality products.
The ecological and climatic conditions of Hungary are not everywhere suitable for potato, in the area of Debrecen the amount of rainfall was lower, and the monthly average temperature was higher than the requirement of potato in its growing season in 2002 and 2003.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 8 and 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Out of the examined varieties 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up on 49.5 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, out of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the under-water mass, the amount of reducing sugars, the colour index of frying and the element contents of tubers.
Summing up, it can be stated that among the agrotechnical year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. On the basis of our results, it can be stated that in potato production variety should be chosen in accordance with the aim of production and technology should be adapted to that specific variety.

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Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen
17-23

The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In th...is respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

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N-Phenyl-Phthalamic Acid and Fertilization Effects on Flowering, Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
24-28

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány 1, Mutsu), the authors studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic (PPA) acid and fertilization on flowering, fruit set and fruit quality in the years 2003-2004. The research results showed that PPA application extended the flowering time of the most ...cultivars. Fruit set of apple cultivars increased in many cases when regulator was applied. The additional nutrient supply could increase the fruit set too. The increase of fruit set increased the number of fruit per tree. Quality parameters determined by fertilization and fruit number per tree. For example, when N-phenyl-phthalamic acid was applied without fertilization the fruit number per tree increased considerably however, it caused a considerable frittering away. The reason for this is that fruit set was high and fruit received not enough nutrition for growing up. The skin colour of fruits was decreased in several cases by the treatments. In one respect the enlarged fruit number was shaded the others and the fertilization increased the vegetative shading leaf area.

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Crop Load, Fruit Thinning and their Effects on Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
29-35

Crop load, a quantitative parameter used by industry, is generally defined as the number of fruit per tree. It is often expressed in terms of number of fruit per trunk cross-sectional area (fruit/TCSA). Crop load is the most important of all factors that influence fruit size, and the removing of a part of the crop is the most effective way to i...mprove fruit size.
The potential size of a given pome fruit is determined early in the season and growth proceeds at a relatively uniform rate thereafter. This uniform growth rate permits the accurate prediction of the harvest size of the fruit as early as mid-summer. The growth rate, once established, is not easily altered, and fruit numbers, therefore, can affect fruit size only within definite limits and maximum effectiveness requires adjustment in fruit numbers relatively early in the season. It was established, that „thinning does not change a potentially small fruit into a large fruit, but rather insures that a potentially large fruit will size properly.” Emphasis should be on estimating fruit numbers rather than fruit size.
Fruit thinning can quickly reach the point of diminishing returns. Rather than a high percentage of large fruits, the objectives of thinning should be the elimination of the smallest fruits, improved fruit quality and annual production. Fruit thinning is accomplished by hand or chemical thinning. Chemical thinners are separated into categories as bloom thinners and post-bloom thinners. Early removal of potential fruit (blossom thinning) is currently used in many apple producing areas to enhance flower initiation for next year’s crop and thus, return bloom. It also results in reduced competition for photosynthates. Blossom thinners usually have a caustic effect on floral parts.
The amount of fruit left on a tree should be determined by the vigor and general condition of the tree. Leaf area per fruit affects the number of spurs flowering the following season. It can be difficult to separate timing and fruit number effects in crop loading studies, as abscission rates after hand thinning of retained flowers/fruitlets tend to very with the time of hand thinning.

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The Examination of the Effects of Value Modifying Factors on Dairy Farms
36-40

We wish to present a method to quantify the value modifying effects when comparing animal farms. To achieve our objective, multi-variable statistical methods were needed. We used a principal component analysis to originate three separate principal components from nine variables that determine the value of farms. A cluster analysis was carried o...ut in order to classify farms as poor, average and excellent. The question may arise as to which principal components and which variables determine this classification.
After pointing out the significance of variables and principal components in determining the quality of farms, we analysed the relationships between principal components and market prices. Some farms did not show the expected results by the discriminant analysis, so we supposed that the third principal component plays a great role in calculating prices. To prove this supposition, we applied the logistic regression method. This method shows how great a role the principal components play in classifying farms on the basis of price categories.

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Comparison of Reproductive Performance of the Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus, L.) Among Different Regions
41-46

The potential and actual number of offspring of roe deer and the difference between these figures (prenatal and postnatal loss) significantly vary in each population yearly. The objective of this study is to examine the potential and actual number of offspring, the number of losses, and to find a link between the most important biological chara...cteristics of does (body weight – BW, condition – KFI) and the number of raised offspring on four territories on the Great Hungarian Plain.
Where the number of corpora lutea (CL) is the highest, there the losses are the highest as well, and the number of raised offspring is the lowest (region I.). Here, the rearing loss is double that of the weakest territory (region IV.). Rearing losses can be associated with the fenotype of does (BW, KFI) but environmental factors also have determinative importance. Where the number of twin-calving does was the highest, I found four times more does without a fawn than where the number of twin-calving does was the lowest. The nursing success was the best (the losses were lowest) in the region where the potential offspring (number of CL) was also the lowest, but the coverage of the habitat and the proportion of forests were largest. The food supply for the animals in autumn and winter are not enough, the structure of the habitat has to be improved as well, so that it might become adequate for game protection in extreme weather conditions.
The results have to be considered as preliminary ones. It is essential to continue and extend the research to increase the reliability of the results.

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The Role of the Digital Terrain Models in the Assessment of Surplus Water Risk at the Szolnok-Túri Plain
47-51

The environmental factors to which surplus water can be assigned (topography, soil, groundwater, vegetation etc.) can be subject to special analysis and the randomness of the occurrences can be limited. The results of these procedures are surplus water risk maps of the areas, which can be utilised in land use planning. The risk map of the resea...rch site was created with overlaying digital category maps of the determining factors (hydraulic conductivity, convexity, critical probability of ground water level and land use).

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Basic Research for the Development of Fertiliser Spreaders
52-57

The knowledge of the physical characteristics of fertiliser particles is essential for the constructors and operators of fertiliser distributors. Among physical characteristics, the most important are the frictional and aerodynamic properties for the description of particle movement. Adjustable angled slopes, shearing boxes and various rotating... disks are used to identify frictional properties. We have developed a high precision shearing box with digital force measuring cells and a distance signaller (incremental transducer) that we use for slide tests efficiently. We measured the frictional characteristics of 6 different fertilisers: the inner coefficient of friction and the coefficient of friction on ten test surfaces most commonly used in machinery, and we specified the relationship between displacement, loading and the coefficient of friction. We can conclude that the material of the frictional surface significantly influences the force of friction.
However, our experience tells us that the shearing box is not suitable for the measurement of the inner friction, since the examined particles slide on the metal surface of the shearing box in a growing extent in the course of displacement, so it does not measure the real inner friction. Therefore, in our experiment we have developed rotating shearing equipment with a constant shearing surface to identify the inner friction. We tested the equipment with fertilisers and we identified the inner frictional characteristics of 6 different fertilisers. With the developed rotating shearing apparatus we could measure the real inner friction of the particles.
To identify the aerodynamic characteristics of granules, wind tunnels and free-fall tests are used. An elutriator have been developed for our investigation. We have used fertilisers for testing the measuring equipment and we have identified the aerodynamic characteristics of 6 different fertilisers.

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Price Risk Management by Futures Markets and Public Warehousing
58-65

The principal achievement of this paper is the combinative use of two market institutions: public warehousing and commodity exchange and how their joint application is beneficial for the players on the grain market. Based on a theoretical foundation, a calculation model was developed in order to assist short and long-term marketing decisions. I...t allows all the three participants of the market: producers, consumers and traders, to use this model in order to establish their own business strategy. The model can be used to analyse factors influencing the establishment of price; therefore, it can be also used for policy-making decisions.

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An Applicable Method for Elaborating Agricultural Logistics Trends
66-69

Hungarian scientific practice focuses mainly on statistical methods to elaborate sector-specific trends. This paper aims to offer another alternative. The author’s view is that in rapidly and significantly changing markets, data extrapolation is not necessarily the ideal way to forecast certain trends of the sector. Agricultural Supply Chains... have been restructured lately. There are remarkable developments in fields such as: warehousing systems, telematic systems, transportation. This is one of the reasons several drivers may alter the trends determined previously by statistical professionals. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) synthesizes expert opinions concerning the future, so it is a decision-supporting method and therefore more flexible to the changes of the sector. The author introduces the application of the AHP for Agricultural Logistics Trends.

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Comparison of Variability among Irradiated and Control Inbred Maize Lines via Morphological Descriptions and Some Quantitative Features
70-73

Knowledge of genetic diversity in breeding material is fundamental for hybrid selection programs and for germplasm preservation as well. Research has been done with nine irradiated (fast neutron) and four non-treated inbred lines. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the degree of genetic variability detected with morphological descri...ption (based on CPVO TP/2/2) in these materials, (2) to compare the genetic changes among irradiated and non-irradiated maize inbred lines (based on some quantitative features). The irradiation did not change any of the characteristics clearly in positive or negative way, which can be related to the fact that the effect of induced mutation on genetic structure cannot be controlled. From the irradiated lines we have managed to select plants with earlier ripening times and better phenotypes. We could distinguish 3 main groups by the morphological features; these results match our expectations based on pedigree data. Markers distinguishable on the phenotypic level (e.g. antocyanin colouration, length of tassels) were significant in all lines.

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