No 33 (2009)

Published June 5, 2009

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Articles

Dr. Károly Ihrig: the Scholar and the Person
5-9

The paper – in a form of abridged version of an oral presentation – analyses scientific works and  human qualifications of one of the greatest Hungarian scholar, Károly Ihrig. The study deals with the most important works of the great Hungarian polymath on co-operative theory and  agricultural policy, as well as with the story of... his works later on.

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Psychoactive substance the examination of implements and school factors among young persons living on country
11-17

The study investigates the drug addiction, school problems and the underlying emotional disorders of provincial young people. I assumed that school problems are connected with the
youth’s legal and illegal drug consumption.
In my research, I used the Euroadad questionnaire taken at the Drug Ambulance of Nyíregyháza. The sample covered... 144 interviewees, 76.9% of whom were „diverted” from jurisdiction. The other respondents volunteered for the therapy.
The linear regression analysis was applied to examine the interrelations between the elements under study.
All of the 144 respondents have tried or regularly apply some consciousness-modifying substance. Most of them are young adults. The preferred drugs were marijuana and ecstasy. All
consume alcohol as well. A significant connection can be proved between the majority of the psychological and school behavioural problems under survey and the drug abuse. The more problematic group covers those taking extasy. 

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The time, than the resource of the managerial activity
19-24

The role of the time factor in management is increasing. Change directs attention to the time factor from the point of view of the organisation, and management does the same from that of
the person. I examined the time management practice of managers of organisations related to agribusiness, and the reaction time characterising the adaption ...ability of the organisations through a questionnaire survey. I analysed the collected data with scientifically established statistical methods.
During studying resources I analysed the time factor from two aspects. On the one hand, I wanted to know what role time has in managers’ opinions in increasing company efficiency and
performance. On the other hand, I asked them how much they consider this resource to be expandable. 

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Theoretical schools on employment and workforce
25-33

In the civil economics, like in the case of any other socialeconomic issues, there are two coexistent theories concerning employment. On one hand we have the classical-neo-classical
school based on Adam Smith’s works. On the other hand we have the teachings based on John Maynard Keynes’ views. All the later hypotheses are based on these ...two trends.
Monetarism, which was invented at the beginning of the 20th century, mixes certain elements of both basic theories. Those who represent monetarism agree on rejecting the economy policy
means which affect the processes of the workforce market, while they consider these above mentioned means applicable to regulate certain processes. By the end of the 1970s the neo-classical macro-economics had developed, which completely refuses these approaches. A decade later the neo-Keynesian macro-economics developed. Its hypotheses regarding  especially employment and unemployment lead to some of the employment issues of globalism, which is one of the most influential phenomena of present time.

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The Connection of Capital Leverage and Profitability by the Corporate Agriculture Enterprises
35-39

The analysis of capital system of agricultural corporations is a key issue of economics and the effect of it's fluctuation can be observed on several fields of the life of corporations.It influences
for example the assets-, financial- and income situation of the enterprises.The aim of this study is to analyse the connection between capital s...tructure and profitability in order to reveal such
a ratio for the capital leverage and liabilities, by which it can say, to that connect the profit or loss. By the analyse get activity- and size specified results.With the empyrical results I determine the quantile point between the profitable or the non profitable operating.

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Efficiency evaluation of service marketing at a Hungarian telecommunication company
41-47

The article discusses the marketing effectivity of a communication service at a Hungarian telecommunication company. The main target is to establish economic effectivity of the enchanced promotion of the service. The basic metholodogy was the comparison of a new marketing plan and real figures of the planned period. The results of 2005 and 2006... show a very
positive financial effectivity of the surplus communication. Based on the results a further promotion is suggested.

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Analysis of the reasons for the crisis and insolvency of agricultural enterprises
49-54

The huge insolvency of the enterprise organizations is very adverse for the national economy, the first social and economic task of each country, Hungary as well, should be the maintenance
of the efficient and viable organizations. The liquidation of the agricultural organizations has much more economic and social effects. As a result of my ...researches I declared that most of the
time the causes, which led to the liquidation of agricultural organizations, are independent from the organisation and are external. The common feature of external causes are that they are
not influenced by the organisations, so they cannot be avoided. So the adaptation to the external causes has huge importance in the battle of avoidance of insolvency.

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A study of product strategy priorities at the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region
55-64

Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can... be characterised with certain strategic
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.

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The launch on the way to development or the „revival”... (Comparisons of theoretical and practical approaches apropos of the change and crisis management process of smes and mature companies) .
65-70

Hungarian SMEs, just like those in other EU member states, often cease for various reasons. Among these factors are many, which should not necessarily turn out this way. These factors are studied in numerous countries while the attempt is also made to create the systems of conditions for these enterprises to recover – often through various ai...ds and supports (from public supports to non-governmental initiatives). Among other things they are trying
to organize those services with the help of which – if there is the slightest hope for survival – those SMEs in trouble or having serious difficulties could avoid going down by recovering from
their problematic situation and getting improvements.
These days this issue comes up more and more urgently in Hungary, as well. It has quite a few signs indicating that – among other things – the reports, the enquiries and commissions of the
National Association of Change and Crisis Managers (VOE), all of which – just like "thermometers" – reflect this tendency well. 
I have been doing research on this topic since 1993. As an expert I utilize them, and as a VOE member, vice president, then president I process the relevant Hungarian but mainly French
experience on the subject. I intend to present those few theoretical and practical results and applicable experience I have reached this way in this presentation of mine.

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Research of the interrelations between actors and strategic goals in decision making
71-75

management, although there are many chiseled methodologies plenty of professional literature. 
The problem is more complex in strategic planning of regional communities – societies – of different range. These societies are very diverse, and accordingly the strategic goal setting can, and has to be very different than the strategic g...oal setting of enterprises.
The group of methods for morphologic and structural analysis and the computer based MACTOR program could be used.
The output data are presented in a large number of matrixes, vectors, graphs and histogram’s, which describe very fair the possible scenarios for preparation and decision making about
strategic plans.

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Analysis of the Hungarian National Action Plan for Employment in the Framework of RuralJobs International Project
77-86

Employment and creation of new jobs getting more and more attention both on national and on European level. The examination of this topic is especially important in rural areas of
Europe. There were several European and national researches dealing with this question, and there are new upcoming works which try to find solutions for citizents ...to decrease unemployment in rural areas. The RuralJobs, EU Framework 7. project presented in the paper is one of these researches. After a short introduction of RuralJobs and the task under workpackage two of the research, which analysis strategies, policies and programmes from the aspect of rural jobs, one of the documents reviewed under this task, the Hungarian National Action Plan for Employment is presented, in line with the most important stages of the EU’s
employment policy.

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Relationships of the sport and the life quality in the University of Debrecen
87-96

In the sport- life of the University of Debrecen there has been a demand formulated on the making of a comprehensive, long-term development plan, which obviously incorporates all
fields of sport. This document guides the way for people in the sport- life of the university how they could organise their activities connected with sport on a cal...culable, predictable level.
Necessarily, the preliminary collection of professional informations has been a basic requirement for the establishment of this document.
The program provides foreseeable instructions to the organisation of sport pursuits both for sport people in the university, and members of the sport spehere in a wider sense. It
offers a cohesive solution for all kinds of tasks defined with the sport life, and also gives a guidance for the various ways of realisations of these challenges. Thus it can answer such questions as for example how the university can conduce the initation of conditions for the healthy living through spare time sporting, how it can participate in the financing of contest sport with the contributing project of reinforcement training and how the university can support the sport life of handicapped people. The project also contributes to the cultivation of the sport traditions of the university by bankrolling not only the official university sport
life but also the leisure time sporting of the students.
On the basis of rethinking the situation of sport at the university with its future possibilities the program paraphrases the tasks of the university in the sport life, the long term aims of
university sport politics with its operative aims that should be performed and also the possible steps which lead to these purposes.
The target of the project is to turn the University of Debrcen in every field into a “Sporting University”. It means, that beyond the development of quality sport and outstanding contest sport a much wider range of university people should be included in sporting in order to utilize all the advantages of sport. With this the physical culture could become not only a substantial form of spending our free time, but with getting one of our natural everyday activities it can also become our lifestyle.
Sporting prominently contributes to both the university students’s and the whole society’s mental and physical wellfare, and it also helps to improve our helthstate on various fields of life:
with its special functions it is a means for establishing a healthy nation, for promoting common relationships, for nourishing the economic activity of people and also for strengthening the national values and one’s self-esteem through providing equal opportunities.
The prosperousity of contest sport at the university and the maintaining and protesing of its efficiency fortifies our selfregard, as it is able to hold appropriate sportsmen up as examples
to both present and future universtity students, and also offers exacting ways of entertainment. Besides all these the advataged purpose of the project is to find and delibaretaly include those
necessary mechanisms which are needed for the working of the sport market.

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Contradiction in the agrofinancial regulation of agricultural producers
97-107

Hungary is a country of favourable conditions with agropotential, for this reason the regulations regarding agriculture is constantly the bone of legislative contention. The
purpose of this study is to present the actual agropotential contradictions concerning the agricultural producers, specifically focusing on certain problems without any ...detailed representation of the valid rules of law. The agrofinancial anomalies referring to agricultural producers can be found mostly in the system of the personal income tax (allowance, tax immunity), the value added tax (special agricultural legal position) as well as the social insurance.
The severity of the problem is supported by the agricultural producers’ behavioral types of paying taxes, globalisation process of these days and our place in the European Union. The resolution of the contradictions in agriculture does not lie by any means in the proper way of making the rules of the law of taxation, but in a comprehensive economic policy, which is to be waited for.

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Analysis of human factors in wiev of safety at some agricultural companies in Hajdú-Bihar county
109-115

The author examined the human social influence factors of the occupational safety and health and number of workers at thirteen different agricultural firms. He’d measured at these enterprises the demographic characteristics and the risk sensibility of farmlabourers at scopes of activities and some related occupational safety and health attitu...des from the psychosocial factors. He used questionnaire and personal guided interviews and methodical examinations. He used seven graded Likert-scale (-3...0...+3) (Malhotra, 2005) for qualification of answers. He established that selection by the leaders don’t prefer the special skills. He stated that the examined farm-labourers have got a low risk sensibility, but the statistics of the accidents not certifies it. With the occupational safety and health related attitudes influence the relation to the occupational safety and health, and to comply with OSH rules. It was established that the rate of quasi-accidents is relative high at agricultural workers.

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Possibilities of conceptualization and operacioanlizaton of the safety culture and safety climate in the international safety management researches
117-126

In this paper the author summarized the definitions and operationalisations of the safety culture and safety climate concepts. He analyzed the Hungarian and international safety
management scientific literatures. He also analyzed the scientific definitions and summarised the common and different elements. The author emphasizes that the many ...different scientific safety culture researches had been created good possibilities to find the common surfaces. Based on the international safety culture operationalisation practices the author identified a composition of safety culture dimensions which could be a possible basis for the Hungarian safety culture researches. These dimensions are:
???? values (individual and organizational) from this result scale of values,
???? attitudes (individual and organizational),
???? motivations,
???? perceptions,
???? social status and estimation of the occupational safety and health,
???? position and estimation of the occupational safety and health communication,
???? position and estimation of the occupational safety and health tranings,
???? measuring of confidence, optimism, fatalism and anomic characteristics,
???? good practices and behavior,
???? influence and estimation of the work,
???? risk perception and safety level perception,
???? contentment.with occupational safety and health.

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The comparative evaluation of the preparedness and development of graduates
127-133

The skill of dealing with people was given a special importance by the persons interviewed during my examination by means of questionnaires although most of the specialist works I
consulted did not pay too much attention to this fact. When asked about the particular fields of further studies, only a small proportion of the respondents regard...ed the development of their
personality important. I think to dissolve this paradox is necessary as without the development of personality it is impossible to improve interpersonal skills, that is one of the basic pillars of good performance at work. Regarding that it is the graduates who fill managerial posts, dealing with people belongs to one of their tasks.
Among the respondents if the first degree were from a college and not from a university, the greatest proportion of those studying further would live in Heves and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén counties. However, this connection cannot be proved in Budapest. Individual motivation is the main drive of studying further after obtaining a degree in a greater and greater proportion.
The graduates’ studying further is significantly directed to acquiring extra knowledge rather than a totally new profession and they get a deeper insight into the knowledge necessary for
their profession driven by their own motivation.

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The role of Local wine administration bodies in creating social and cultural capital and in the preservation of local identity
135-143

Due to the peculiarities of viniculture, some kind of a community organizing force has always existed in every European wine region. The Hungarian system of local wine administration
bodies is however unique. The foundations of the system have hardly changed throughout the centuries and the communities’ function as a socio-organizing power... has been historically proven. In this essay I am attempting to demonstrate this power and ability using social, ethnical, sciences, anthropological, landscapeeconomical and occasionally mathematical methods. As former leader of a local wine administration body in Egerbakta, the member of the same body in Eger and also a vine-grower in Létavértes I also have first hand information about the practical issues of the system. The paper could not be more timely after the 2006’s modification of legislations governing wine administration. One element of the modifications is the creation of large and centralized administration bodies over the ruins of small ones that
were presumed to be indispensable for a long time.

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Sustainable energy management – the importence of the renewable energy sources, their difficulties and chances
145-154

The biggest question of the century standing before us is that if people will be able to direct the development to sustainable direction. One of the components of global problems threatening
us is the pressure that the energy management puts on the environment, which can be significantly lowered by utilizing renewable energy sources. The aim... of my study is to draft the
model of a sustainable energy management, putting the renewable energy sources into it in a sensible way, regarding the possibilities of Hungary.

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Feeding questions of organic lamb fattening
155-160

Organic farming has done in line with conventional farming in the Karcag Research Institute of DU CASE since 2001. Our organic farming activities were enhanced with sheep farming and
grassland management in 2005. We started our study of technology development of organic lamb fattening and the treatment of its economic effect this year. Our g...oal was to develop
the elements of the technology to reach a more efficient organic lamb fattening. We also studied what economic advantages the organic sheep farming could realize in the present economic environment. Our studies were carried out between 2005 and 2007. We established that the excellent ewe feeding (good quality of fodder and silage) can decrease the lamb feeding cost between the 2nd and 8th weeks of the lambs’ life. We established that the
yield of convention lambs are significantly higher than the yield of organic lambs. The cost of organic lamb fodder is significantly lower than the cost a convention lamb fodder, but the profit was higher in the case of convention lamb fattening. The organic lamb fattening technology (without extra price) is not competitive to the conventional lamb fattening technology. We think that the profitability of organic lamb fattening is significantly less than of the convention one. The organic lamb price should be 20-30% higher than the other price to be competitive.  Unfortunatly there is only a little demand for organic lamb and there is no difference between the prices of organic and convention lambs, so organic sheep farmers have worse economic circumstances than conventional sheep farmers. 

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Assessment of temperament and its effect on weaning performance for Aubrac and Charolais weaned calves
161-169

The purposes of the present study are to compare the temperament of calves of different breed and sex at weaning, to analyse the effect of temperament on weaning performance, and to
define the correlations  between the previous traits. In the experiment carried out in Gelej in 2006 the behaviour of 61 Aubrac and 25 Charolais calves (39 ...heifer and 47 bull calves) was
assessed at weaning. The weight (WW) and the age of animals were detected, in addition temperament (TEMP) of them was scored. The weaning age (AU: 190±16.96 days, CH: 176±14.94
days; P<0.001) and the weaning weight adjusted to 205 days of age (CWW) (AU: 192.39±31.32 kg, CH: 213.80±23.99 kg; P<0.01) of the two breeds significantly differed of each other. The
temperament of calves was evaluated by scale test on a 5-point scale during weighing. The data were processed by SPSS 14.0 program package (Mann-Whitney U test, MANOVA, Tukey test,
Spearman rank correlation test). Significant difference was revealed between the two breeds in TEMP (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores; P<0.001), furthermore also difference was proven
between the bull calves of Aubrac and Charolais in the behaviour (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores, P<0.01). Analysing the effect of sex both for 86 calves and each breed, it was showed that the TEMP of the heifer and bull calves was equalled (P>0.10). Both of the WW and CWW were influenced by the behaviour of calves (P<0.05), which meant that the more excitable calves had higher WW and CWW. Positive, weak correlation coefficients were calculated among the TEMP, the WW and the CWW (rrank=0.28 and rrank=0.31; P<0.01). By their results it was concluded that in young age not only the performance but also the behaviour of calves are determined by the calf rearing ability of suckling cow. 

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Statistical comparison of coverage data of disturbed habitats in the Hajdúság
171-178

Between 2002 and 2006 we made the coenological survey of five disturbed habitats marked as grasslands. With our coenological examinations and the statistical analyses we wanted to make the detailed botanical survey of the given five habitats in order to verify that the maintenance of habitats amongst agricultural lands – and considered as les...s valuable – is of high importance and necessary from an environmental point of view, since these habitats are often living and feeding areas of many rare and/or protected plant- and animal species.
As a result of the statistical analyses we have pointed out that number of species in case of all the five habitats extreme fluctuation characterizes the statistical universe. As regards the
average of the coverage it is the highest in case of the third habitat (degraded Puccinellia grassland), and the coefficient of variation shows homogenity as well. In examining the Shannon-value the average is the highest in case of the second habitat (Alopecurus meadow), and the statistical dispersion is the smallest. The coefficient of variation shows medium variability. The median of evenness is the lower in case of the third habitat (degraded
Puccinellia meadow) and the statistical is the highest here as well. 
We have done the Hierarchical and the K-Means Cluster Analyses for the 21 plant associations of the five habitats. Both cluster analyses put the same associations into the same cluster, so
one can state that the associations in each cluster are different from the associations of the other ones according to the coverage data of the plant families. 

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Landscape use of protected areas in the Hódmezővásárhely micro-region
179-193

One of the biggest questions of developing rural areas is that people and organisations living and making their activity there how and in what measure utilize the local or obtainable external
resources. The concept of the landscape expresses the direct connection of the natural resources with the socio-economic processes. This is a two-way c...onnection, (1) on the one hand the single landscapes provide the unique combination of natural conditions for the socio-economic utilisation which is different from other landscapes, (2) on the other hand as the result of the interaction of natural spheres together with the social and economic spheres the landscapes change in a different manner and in a different measure. The landscape as a territorial unit and as a resource is inseparable from the natural resources, and the nature
conservation plays an increasingly important role in the use of the landscape and landscape management, which is an essential task not only in protected areas, but everywhere. The natural resources, the landscape, the nature conservation and the landscape use are related tightly, in which the so-called ecological/biological resources and their sustainable use have a
significant role. 

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