No 66 (2015): Special crop protection issue

Published June 2, 2015



Irén Dobos horticulturalist-teacher plant protection engineer expert awarded by Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection" in 2015 (laudation)

The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors established a joined Award Committee in 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achievements by awarding the ...Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical crop protection specialists. In 2015 dr. Irén Dobos horticulturist- teacher and plant doctor has been decorated with the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” for her “excellence in integrated plant protection practical research activity and effective knowledge transfer”.

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Let's talk about 'One fungus One name'. Changes in the fungal taxonomy

Mycologists have recorded a few hundred thousand Latin names for fungi and these are thought to refer to 70 000 or so separate species. The use of molecular techniques in fungal taxonomy and systematics in the last 25 years has provided massive amounts of information to clarify phylogenetic relationships, encouraged grant support, and complicat...ed the jobs of classically-trained mycologists. Taxonomists have a reputation for being traditionalists, but the community has recently embraced the modernization of the nomenclatural rules by discarding the requirement for Latin descriptions, endorsing electronic publication, and ending the dual system of nomenclature, viz. teleomorph and anamorph names, which used parallel for the sexual and asexual phases of pleomorphic species. A group of taxonomists accepted ’The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature’ and its basic principle the ’One fungus – one name’ has been incorporated in the Code of Nomenclature (’Melbourne Code’) in 2011. The next, and more difficult step will be to develop community standards for sequence-based classification. As the’One fungus – One name’ theory is a brand-new issue for the Hungarian plant doctors and practical specialists, it seems reasonable to review this to promote conversations between generations in Hungarian language.

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Management of phytopathogens by application of green nanobiotechnology: Emerging trends and challenges

Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary and important research area in modern science. The use of nanomaterials offer major advantages due to their unique size, shape and significantly improved physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of metal nanoparticles have received much a...ttention of researchers. There are different methods i.e. chemical, physical and biological for synthesis of nanoparticles. Chemical and physical methods have some limitations, and therefore, biological methods are needed to develop environment-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. Moreover, biological method for the production of nanoparticles is simpler than chemical method as biological agents secrete large amount of enzymes, which reduce metals and can be responsible for the synthesis and capping on nanoparticles.

Biological systems for nanoparticle synthesis include plants, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes. Many plant species including Opuntia ficus-indica, Azardirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Triticum aestivum, Hydrilla verticillata, Citrus medica, Catharanthus roseus, Avena sativa, etc., bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactobacillus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Torulopsis sp., and fungi, like Fusarium spp. Aspergillus spp., Verticillium spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae MKY3, Phoma spp. etc. have been exploited for the synthesis of different nanoparticles. Among all biological systems, fungi have been found to be more efficient system for synthesis of metal nanoparticles as they are easy to grow, produce more biomass and secret many enzymes. We proposed the term myconanotechnology (myco = fungi, nanotechnology = the creation and exploitation of materials in the size range of 1–100 nm). Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology, and is an exciting new applied interdisciplinary science that may have considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of fungi.

Nanotechnology is the promising tool to improve agricultural productivity though delivery of genes and drug molecules to target sites at cellular levels, genetic improvement, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants and also use of nanoparticles-based gene transfer for breeding of varieties resistant to different pathogens and pests. The nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), titanium (Ti) and chitosan have shown their potential as novel antimicrobials for the management of pathogenic microorganisms affecting agricultural crops. Different experiments confirmed that fungal hyphae and conidial germination of pathogenic fungi are significantly inhibited by copper nanoparticles. The nanotechnologies can be used for the disease detection and also for its management. The progress in development of nano-herbicides, nano-fungicides and nano-pesticides will open up new avenues in the field of management of plant pathogens. The use of different nanoparticles in agriculture will increase productivity of crop. It is the necessity of time to use nanotechnology in agriculture with extensive experimental trials. However, there are challenges particularly the toxicity, which is not a big issue as compared to fungicides and pesticides.

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Arrival of invasive pests in our direct environment and control opportunities

The author refers about the nowadays applied practical plant protection activities against pests occuring on trees, shrubs and turfs of public domains. It is overviewed those insects, diseases and weeds which cause damages and touched also upon disturbing the local residents only and tasks to the plant protection engineer expert to manage them.... Among the special features of public domains should be mentioned that the rules are difficult to harmonize according to the legal, public health, and horticulture requirements at the same time. The anti-pesticide attitude of EU and the modest range of pesticides which are applicable on public domains make difficulties in optimal management work. The author draws up proposals how to manage the complex plant protection on public domains.

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The role of disease resistance in the registration of crop varieties in Hungary

Variety testing including disease resistance test of the major crops has been carrying out since the 1960’s in Hungary. Testing for resistance of the new candidate varieties is performed in the so-called VCU (Value for Cultivation and Use) trials under natural infection and in special small-plot or micro-plot trials using different disease pr...ovocative methods. Disease resistance, especially those of multiple and horizontal-type (race non-specific, partial or durable) resistances, has recently become a key limiting factor in the state variety registration. The role of disease resistance in the decision-making process of variety registration is demonstrated on the examples of winter wheat and sunflower as two major field crops in Hungary.

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White rust species (Chromista, Peronosporomycetes, Albuginales, Albuginaceae) on common weeds in Hungary

The obligate plant parasite fungi in the family Albuginaceae are responsible for causing white rust diseases on weeds and they are rather common worldwide. Weedy plants with characteristic symptoms have been collected in 2014 and 2015 on location Hajdú-Bihar and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties in Hungary. The determination of the species were b...ased on the morphological characters both pathogens and hosts. Albugo candida was determined on shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a host for Wilsoniana portulacae. The fungus Wilsonia bliti (syn.: Albugo bliti), the causal agent of white rust disease was found on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus).

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Examination of resistance to Sclerotinia stalk and head rot in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids

Nowadays, phytopathogenic fungi cause the most serious yield loss in open field cultures, and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is no exception to this phenomenon. Sclerotinia stalk and head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) is present in the whole area of Hungary, and can cause serious financial loss. In our experiment, sunflower hybrids were tested ...for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection. 16 sunflower hybrids were examined at the Experimental Breeding Site in Jászboldogháza. Pesticide treatment and also nutrient replacement were applied on the sunflower fields.

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Effect of the media on morphology of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr isolates and their Vegetative Compatibility Groups

The most dangerous pathogen for the European and American chestnuts is the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr. Short after its introduction a big number of chestnut trees were destroyed on the infested area. The control could be really complicated, because of the numerous vegetative compatibility groups of the fungus. There i...s a type that carries a mycovirus viz. hypovirus in the cytoplasm. We are able to control effectively this pathogen by using mycovirus-carrying strains (called hypovirulent fungal strains also). In laboratory it is easy to multiply the virulent and the hypovirulent strains of the fungus but do not easy to differentiate colonies visually on simple PDA medium. During our research, we tested different types of media, based on potato and chestnut bark extract respectively. It was observed that on potato medium the virulent strains produce more orange pigments. So it is more easy to differentiate virulent or hypovirulent isolates of chestnut blight fungus based on colony colour and morphology.

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Old-new disease is maize smut (Ustilago maydis)

Corn smut disease (Ustilago maydis) is one of the most common maize diseases. In the previous years the disease lost some from its importance, however nowadays it turns into more and more important and widespread one. The control encounters great difficulties, therefore it should be emphasized the preventive and resistance-based protection.

Sensitivity of maize to herbicides in experiments in Martonvásár in 2015

The phytotoxic effect of herbicides applied post-emergence was investigated in a herbicide sensitivity experiment set up on parental maize genotypes in Martonvásár. A total of 48 Martonvásár inbred lines and 12 single line crosses were included in small-plot experiments set up in two replications. Ten herbicides were applied at the normal a...uthorised rate and at twice this quantity. Compounds intended for pre-emergence application were applied when maize was in the 3–4-leaf stage and post-emergence herbicides in the 7–8-leaf stage of development. The extent of phytotoxicity was scored two weeks after treatment. Some of the herbicides tested are not authorised for use in seed production fields, but it is important to know how the parental genotypes respond to all types of herbicides. Phytotoxic symptoms of varying intensity were only observed on a third of the 60 parental genotypes examined; the majority of the lines exhibited no reaction to any of the herbicides. Averaged over the 60 genotypes the level of phytotoxic damage was less than 10% for the single dose. When the double dose was applied somewhat more severe damage was induced by products containing Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron or Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl, but this was still below 15%. The herbicide dose had a three times stronger influence on the intensity of the symptoms than the type of herbicide. With the exception of Topramezone, there was a significant difference between the effects of the normal and double doses. The greatest dose effect differences, in decreasing order, were observed for Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl. Nicosulfuron and Mesotrione + Terbutylazine. The Mesotrione + Terbutylazine active ingredient combination only caused mild (<10%) symptoms on a total of 11 genotypes, while the Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron combination induced more severe phytotoxic symptoms on 26 lines. When Nicosulfuron was applied alone it caused milder symptoms on fewer genotypes than in combination with Mesotrione. Among compounds of the sulphonyl-urea type, the least severe symptoms on the fewest genotypes were recorded in the case of Prosulfuron.

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Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth), a recently occured invasive weed in Trans-Tisza Region and a trial for control in maize

To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.

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Pest species of Macrolepidoptera in the Game Reserve of Velyka Dobron’ (Transcarpathia, Ukraine)

The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping... 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.

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Slight damage of the great green bush-cricket (Tettigonia viridissima) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in some Hungarian maize fields

Characteristic cricket damage was observed in two maize fields in northern Hungary, at Máriabesnyő, a district of Gödöllő. The damage level of the two fields did not differ significantly and continual monitoring of field1 showed also a stable infestation level. T. viridissima nymphs and a female were found and observed as feeding on maize ...plants. The crickets must have disappeared after 18.07. because no more fresh damage was observed after this date. The chewing’s number about on one and two % of the examined plants amounted one and six a plant and their size was between one and eight cm2. This infestation was quite little and might have caused apparently no yield loss. Compared this damage of T. viridissima with former Hungarian experience, this was the usual negligible damage despite the explicit draught in July and August 2015. As regards the global warming, orthopteran damage may be more obvious in the future.

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Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species

Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.

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Plant protection praxis on Hévíz Nature Conservation Area (Lake Balaton District, Hungary)

The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decade...s, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.

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Host plant preference of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the north of Hungary

Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and... Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.

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Contributions to the 2014 and 2015 flight pattern and damages of Carpomyia schineri Loew.

The fly Carpomyia schineri Loew is a pest of the berries of the feral Rosa canina group but is can also be found in the berries of grown rose cultivars. The larva damages the flesh of the berry, several larvae can develop inside a single berry. It can decrease the quantity and ascorbic acid content of the tea and jam, which are important human ...ascorbic acid sources during winter. At the same time in trapping experiments the adult can be confounded with adults of the walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa Cresson). In collections of berries at several sites in Hungary damage levels ranged from 0.88% to 65.08 %. Based on these damage levels we had the impression that the yellow sticky traps CSALOMON® PALz or PALs baited with the synthetic Rhagoletis lure caught moderate numbers of adults and were not satisfactory for detection, consequently improving trapping methods is necessary in the future.

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Varietal dependent response of barley to soil-borne Waitea circinata infection

The disease syndrome caused by Waitea circinata, a soil-borne pathogen introduced in the past decade into Carpathian basin, visually indistinguishable of those caused by various Rhizoctonia strains in diverse host plant. Dicotyledonaceous species in general proved to be more tolerant to this new pathogen than monotyledonaceous ones. This mesoph...ilic fungus can seriously damage cereals. The barley varieties, similarly to other plants, exhibited highly different individual reaction to soil borne infection, Bivoy being the most while Maresi the less tolerant among the 9 tested varieties. Two groups could be separated on the base of their response to Rhizoctonia; Jubilant, Bivoy, Pasadena formed one group being moderately tolerant and Anabell, Scarlett, Rex and Omega the other group of more susceptibles. Three significant factors influence on the virulence of Rhizoctonia strains comprised 62% of total variation.

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