In chestnut plantations or in associations many pathogens and pests can be found. They are causing more than a hundred year problem in chestnut protection, for example the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Lot of breeders hybridized the Castanea sativa and Castanea dentata with the tolerant asian species. Nowadays the presence of Dryocosmus kuriphilus seems to be the main risk. However, there are more and more chestnut plantations in Europe because of the extensive growth of needs. The food industry produces many products from chestnut, but the wood industry also use it more and more. In most of European countries the chestnut stands represent landscape aesthetics and touristic value, but probably the number of farmers inquiring the plantation will be increase in Hungary.