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  • GROSS MOTOR SKILLS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL: IS THERE ANY GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NINE YEARS OLD CHILDREN?
    Views:
    257

    Proper growth and development of young school children require mastering different skills, especially gross motor skills - basic locomotor and manipulative skills. It is essential to monitor the physical activity of nine-year-old children necessary for further proper development and healthy habits, which will continue into adulthood. This study aims to determine physical activity level, BMI, and gender differences in the performance of gross motor skills in children aged nine years (± six months). The study involved 40 participants (20 girls and 20 boys). Their body height, body weight,

    and body mass index were 140.46 ± 5.72 cm; 37.84 ± 8.21 cm; and 19.09 ± 3.56, respectively. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children and performed the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2), and two sub-tests of BOT-2 (Speed and Agility and Upper-Limb Coordination). T-test for independent samples was used to compare groups according to physical activity level (physically active and inactive group) and explore interactions with gender and BMI, and gross motor skills variables. F-values, p-values, and partial eta squared (ɳ2) values were reported as MANOVA outcomes. The results showed a significant difference between physical activity level and locomotor skills but not in manipulative skills. Further research should focus on various exercise programs that contribute to developing skills and participation in organized physical activity of children of different ages.

  • EXAMINATION OF THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF THE ELDERLY DURING THE COVID-19 EPIDEMIC
    Views:
    66

    Physical activity can be used for any movement/exercise involving energy expenditure. Scientific research discusses the issue of older adults' physical activity. It is a common principle that an active lifestyle positively impacts older adults' quality of life and life expectancy. During the period of the coronavirus, it was revealed in many countries that the time spent on physical activity decreased significantly due to social distancing measures. Due to the pandemic, there have been significant changes in the society's sports consumption habits. Our research aims to examine and present the changes in the physical activity of the age group above 60 before the coronavirus and during the period of restrictions and quarantines due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For the analysis, we used data examining the first three waves of the COVID-19 epidemic collected by the Physical Activity Research Group of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Pécs. In the examined periods, a "U"-"-shaped trend can be observed in the development of the physical activity of the 60-69 years age group. In the pre-coronavirus period, the level and intensity of the weekly physical activity of older adults began to decrease after the introduction of the lockdowns. Then, they continued to increase during the successive epidemic waves. The average duration of physical activity (minutes/week) at the second wave and the intensity of physical activity (METs) exceeded the pre-pandemic state significantly by the time of the third wave. As physical activity started to increase in the 60-69 age group during the second and third wave of the coronavirus, it would be essential to maintain an active lifestyle in the later period as well. Physical activity benefits people of all ages and can reduce the burden on the healthcare system.

  • EFFECT OF ELDERLY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON THEIR COGNITIVE SKILLS DANCE AND DEMENTIA
    Views:
    520

    For the analysis, we used a review of English and Hungarian theories and systematic studies focusing on aging activity, dementia, successful aging, movement therapies, and its effects from the PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Research Gate databases.

    Results: Today, a significant problem is a decline in aging's cognitive abilities and untreated nature. Thus, many studies report that positive change in life quality can be achieved through physical activity. Studies show that dance exercise programs (either in pairs or solos) do not impair patients' health with dementia.

    Conclusions: Physical activity positively affects the decline of cognitive functions; indeed, it does not impair brain function activation during aging. For the elderly with dementia and its variants, music and dance therapy have beneficial consequences, especially memory and reaction speed. Regular physical activity enhances physical and psychological well-being, resulting in an improved quality of life. 

     

  • THE ROLE OF DANCE AND MOVEMENT THERAPIES IN STRESS MANAGEMENT
    Views:
    442

    A popular research topic these days is the relationship between health and physical activity. Countless health maintenance programs help an individual to achieve the benefits provided by physical activity. Numerous articles describe the benefits the physical activity. Still, the effect of dance and movement therapies on stress management for children, young adults, middle-aged, and elderly are less likely investigated.

    We used English and Hungarian studies to analyze the relationship between stress, dance, and movement therapies for the systematic review. We used PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Research Gate databases.

    One of the major problems today is the stress of everyday life. Untreated pressure may be destructive to health. Thus, it is reported that incorporating dance as physical activity may trigger positive changes in the field of regaining the state of equilibrium (homeostasis). Related studies demonstrated that dance programs (either alone, in pairs, or groups) might help manage stress and the processing of stress responses.

    Conclusions: Physical activity may effectively help in the management and processing of stress. While dancing, the individual may step out of one’s comfort zone, activating many coordination abilities and cognitive functions. Taking advantage of the positive effects of movement and music. Dancing may positively affect anxiety, depression, and isolation disorders. After all, dance may bring about many positive changes in the body and the brain. The individual may feel happier and balanced. The overall quality of life significantly improves. 

  • EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND COGNITIVE SKILLS
    Views:
    838

    Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.

    Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.

    Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.

    Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.

  • EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE ON IMMUNE FUNCTIONS
    Views:
    699

    Physical activity and exercise are especially important in maintaining health and reducing risk of many diseases. Exercise leads to a pronounced immunomodulation by affecting the elements of innate immune system, as well as the ratio and functions of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, which are involved in the development, maintenance and elimination of inflammation. In the adaptive immune system, Th1 / Th2 balance shift toward Th2, and high-intensity training causes an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells, as opposed to the effect of non-strenuous exercise on the Treg cell ratio. In response to exercise, there is a lack of data on B cells, but some studies have reported a decrease in immunoglobulin secretion. In our own research we observed changes in naive and memory B cell ratios. Upon exercise, IL-6, as proinflammatory cytokine, promotes T cell proliferation, activation, and differentiation of B cells into antibody-producing plasma cells. Hormonal factors play an important role in the background of immunological changes. Exercise stimulates the secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenalin, and their concentration in the blood is directly proportional to the duration of exercise. Endurance exercise is associated with increased cortisol levels, while low intensity exercise does not significantly affect cortisol levels. Exercise and physical stress can increase the concentration of endorphins by 3 to 10 times; β-endorphin inhibits T and B cell activity, thus reduces antibody production. Testosterone causes a reduction in antibodies to IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, Ig-M and Ig-G. Based on the above, mild to moderate physical activity contributes to the enhancement of immune reactivity and the immune response. On the other hand, strenuous exercise with increased intensity leads to a deterioration of immune function and impaired immunological defense.

  • THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ON FITNESS STATUS of UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
    Views:
    447

    The physical fitness state of university students has deteriorated over the years. Relevant data is needed to investigate this tendency thoroughly. We conducted a longitudinal examination among university students in Debrecen, Hungary. At the first stage of our examinations, we examined sixty male and female participants to assess their physical fitness status. They participated in four different activities (pilates, spinning, wellness-general fitness, body-shaping) once a week. Each exercise session lasted for 90 minutes. We conducted a pre-and post-exercise screening, which consisted of a Beep-test, push-up, and sit-up tests. 

    We hypothesized that the different types of activities might alter the exercise response. Aerobic performance, upper-body, and abdominal strength may differ depending on the type of exercise—international recommendations suggesting that 150 minutes of physical activity is necessary for physical fitness benefits. Our results demonstrated that 90 minutes of exercise might significantly improve inactive young adults' physical fitness state once a week.

  • INVESTIGATION ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    Views:
    631

    Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.

    The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymphocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.

    Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.

    Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.

    Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.

  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
    Views:
    773

    Introduction: Many studies have already shown that, there is connection between physical actitity and cognitive functions. Therefore, the aim of our research is to examine the relationship between cognitive decline (dementia) and physical activity.

    Method: The research genre was a secondary method analysis. The literature review was primarily collected from articles published on international scientific sites.

    Results: A total of 11 reviews were examined, examining the relationship between dementia and physical activity, which included 217 articles. Research has supported our hypothesis, that regular exercise has a positive effect on the prevention of dementia by reducing the risk of dementia.

    Conclusion: It would be worthwhile to further investigate, which types of exercise at what repetition rate and what intensity achieve the best results in reducing the risk of dementia, or slowing the process of dementia.

  • THE ANALYTICAL TOOLS OF DEMENTIA, THE RELATIONSIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
    Views:
    688

    Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of ​​research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather than neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best. 

  • EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DANCE AND COGNITIVE SKILLS DANCE AND DEMENTIA
    Views:
    946

    Introduction: The study of dance and cognitive abilities is a common research topic today, as well as many studies and articles on the aspects of physical activity and cognitive relationships. Studying the topic is essential, as the two components actively influence our performance and quality of life, regardless of gender, age, or education

    Objective: To examine the effect of dancing activities has a beneficial effect on motor and cognitive abilities. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction of dance and dementia. Researching exercise programs that do not worsen or accelerate the processes associated with aging, but help to stagnate dementia at that time.

    Method: For analysis, we used an overview of English and Hungarian studies focusing on dance and dementia from Google Scholar and Research Gate.

    Results: According to most research articles, various dance therapies have an impact on cognitive abilities, and studies have shown that dancing exercise programs (either in pairs or solo) do not impair the health of people with dementia. Many studies do not provide accurate test data, which would be extremely important as further research is conducted.

    Conclusions: First, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function and physical activity. On the other hand, there are no specific procedures, exercise programs, or measurement methods that can improve dementia.

  • METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PREVENTION OF SPINE DEFORMITY IN THE FIELD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY
    Views:
    170

    Correct posture is important for health and performance and is also the key to maintaining health. Incorrect posture can have many negative consequences for our physical and mental health. The study undertakes to present the incidence rates of postural disorders and scoliosis in the different grades of public education students based on Hungarian national statistical data, as well as to highlight the age group at risk based on the incidence. In adolescence, we encounter a much higher incidence of posture disorders and scoliosis, one of the reasons for which may be growth, which is not followed by adequate strength of the trunk muscles, but is also influenced by lifestyle factors. Another goal of the article is to provide guidance to physical therapists by collecting methods and tools for the prevention of spinal deformities, helping them implement primary prevention and spinal protection. A lifestyle rich in movement, leisure sports and physical activity can play an outstanding role in preventing poor posture, scoliosis and pes planus diagnosis in students.

     

  • THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORT RECREATIONAL PARK USE IN SZEGED’S ERZSÉBET LIGET
    Views:
    135

    Objective: Our research was aimed to explore the opportunities Szeged’s largest park, the Erzsébet Liget's offers in the area of sport recreation, in addition, the composition, the sports habits, and the contentment of the park's adult visitors who came from nearby and also from more distant places. We hypothesized that the characteristics of access to the park and the characteristics of park use depend on the proximity of the user's residence. At the same time, their socio-demographic features and contentment are unrelated.

    Method: Our primary data were gained using random paper-based questionnaires (N=108). Those people were asked who was doing some physical exercise at various sports scenes in the park. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to explore the relationship between different categorical variables.

    Results: The proximity of the park and the users' place of residence was strongly related to the travel time and the chosen mode of transport. At the same time, it did not show any significant relation to the features of park use for sports. These features, primarily due to the elderly visitors, only impacted the frequency of park visits with an aim other than sport. Also, no significant difference was found concerning the park's proximity, contentment with the services, and socio-demographic variables, although some tendencies were identified.

    Conclusion: The park's proximity did not have an impact of significance concerning the composition and the contentment of park visitors and their use of the sports facilities.

  • THE EXAMINATION OF JOINT TEMPERATURES AND PREVENTIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN E-SPORT- A PILOT STUDY
    Views:
    115

    Our research aimed to determine what temperature changes occur along with the spinal segments during seated exercise and in which direction these temperature values change due to a preventive exercise program. This thesis aims to develop a thermographic analysis procedure to monitor the loads generated in and along the spine of mainly e-athletes and to investigate the effect of a preventive exercise program designed by the research team on the temperature values generated by the load. During our research, we conducted a study with three university students over several months. After an acclimatization period, the research subjects performed e-sport activities in a standardized temperature room while their back temperatures were monitored. The resulting thermograms were analyzed using ImageJ free-use image analysis software. The RGB-type thermograms were converted to 8-bit color depth, and the pixel intensity of the ROI (Range of interest) areas was measured. The following ROI areas were isolated during measurements: neck (C-cervical), back (T-thoracic), lumbar (L-lumbar), and muscle groups to the left (S-sinistrum) and right (D-dextrum) of these areas. Results were obtained at five-minute intervals. Our results showed that the intervention did not produce apparent changes. In two out of three subjects, the cervical section was the hottest, followed by the thoracic and lumbar areas. In general, surfaces to the left of the spinal regions were warmer than surfaces to the right.

  • KÜLÖNBÖZŐ ÉTRENDEK, DIÉTÁK HATÁSA A SPORTTELJESÍTMÉNYRE
    Views:
    475

    The fuel of the human body is food, more specifically the nutrients it contains, so even non-athletes need to pay close attention to what they eat. It is even more important for athletes to develop performance-optimizing eating habits. Sport nutrition is one of the biggest opportunities for performance optimization that has become more and more important recently. There are many special diets, perhaps the best known are: ketogenic diet, Mediterranean diet, vegetarianism, paleo diet. We need to choose our diet while maintaining good health. We should not forget that a long-distance runner, for example, may need a completely different diet than a weightlifter. However, no two people are the same, individuals have different genetics, weight, body composition, movement intensity, metabolism, and the goal they want to achieve, which is why an individualized diet combination within each sport results in the best performance. In our study, we aimed to analyze the effect of diets of different compositions on sports performance based on the mentioned aspects. In the course of our work, we collected and reviewed relevant content on Google and Pubmed. Overall, it can be said that developing the right diet can be a multiplier return on investment. Sport as a physical activity determines lifestyle, including nutrition. Proper, balanced nutrition is essential for both athletes and non-athletes