Vol 5, No 1 (2022)

Published July 6, 2022

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Articles

EFFECTS OF CORE-PROPRIOCEPTIVE TRAINING ON THE QUALITY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS IN U13 FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

Introduction: Complex scientific work to investigate and develop the factors determining performance is essential to improving sports performance. Creating the neuro-muscular connection is paramount, as it is the cornerstone of movement coordination, and the nervous system is the key to mental components.

Objective: Our stu...dy aims to demonstrate the positive effects of core-proprioceptive training on executive functions.

Method: The DEAC U13 girls' academy basketball players (n=12) participated in a 9-week core-proprioceptive training program. Before and after the program, the players' executive functions were measured with the Vienna Test System.

Result: A marked improvement in the measured parameters regarding the evolution of correct and incorrect responses and the reaction time. There is a significant reduction in the number of missed responses.

Conclusions: Core-proprioceptive training also improved nerve-muscle connectivity, affecting the quality of executive functions. The results may be implemented in designing training program.

 

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PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AMONG COMPETITIVE ROWERS

Introduction: Elite rowing athletes participated in anthropometric, psychological and physiological tests.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the relations between the traits of sport-confidence and competitive orientation, as well as to compare state measures of sport-confidence, self-eff...icacy and anxiety. Furthermore, this study targeted to examine the associations of these state measures with performance, in our case the 2000m rowing ergometer run time.

Material and methods: Rowers (N=15) were subjected to anthropometric, psychological and physiological tests: max 2000 m on Rowing Ergo-test, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and Sport Competition Anxiety Test.

Results: CSAI-self-confidence showed a statistically significant difference between genders with boys having a higher score. Overall, SCAT (anxiety) scores were low (normal anxiety) in the sample for the vast majority (12 rowers), only 3 participants showed high anxiety.

Conclusion: The psychological profile does not contribute significantly performance on 2000m Rowing Ergo-test but affects it. Girls completed the distance in a longer period of time, and cognitive anxiety was relatively greater among girls. Additionally, our study pointed out that if the physical parameters are 'inadequate,' then the psychological profile does not contribute to better performance.

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EXAMINATION OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AFFECTING SPORTS PERFORMANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF ATHLETE EXPERIENCE

Introduction: In our research, we investigated the components, executive functions, and cognitive abilities underlying decision-making in sports performance using a computer-based test system. To define the athlete experience, we classified athletes according to an exact, unambiguous definition following international terminology, based on ...their performance, achievement, playing age, and sport's popularity. We hypothesize that team athlete with significant athletic experience will perform better on the executive function test. 

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on team athletes N=52. The VTS-DT test was used to measure executive function. The classification of athlete experience was based on an internationally accepted taxonomy defined with scientific precision (SWANNN, 2015). 

Results: When classified by athlete experience, the athletes we studied fell into amateur and elite categories. The DT/S2 scores of the two groups were compared based on each factor. We obtained trend-like correlations for the factors 'number of reactions', 'number of stimulations,' and 'number of good responses. Correlation analysis was performed between the factors on a group-by-group basis. When examining the relationship between reaction time, we found that there is a strong relationship with the number of stimulations (amateurs: r = -0.80; elite athletes: r = -0.87) since the faster someone is (i.e., the less reaction time), the more times they can respond to stimulations. Looking at the results for elite athletes, we also observe a moderately strong relationship between reaction time and the number of good responses (r = -0.68). We may suggest that experienced athletes could produce better responses faster than less professional athletes.

Conclusions: Our hypotheses were partially confirmed, as we found a trend-like correlation that elite athletes scored higher on the DT test, which examined athletes' executive functions in a complex, adaptive way. Our research demonstrates that, on the one hand, it is worthwhile for coaches to build on experienced athletes when assembling a team, in addition to the momentum of young athletes, and that the development of executive functions and cognitive skills can improve the performance of athletes.  

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EXAMINATION OF SPORTS HABITS IN DISADVANTAGED SETTLEMENTS

The study aims to explore sporting habits and sporting opportunities among the young and middle-aged adult population living in disadvantaged settlements.

Method: As secondary research, we reviewed the literature related to the topic, studied the legislation on the classification of settlements, and analyzed the CSO data. A...s primary research, we conducted an online questionnaire survey among adults aged 18 to 60 living in 6 disadvantaged settlements. The questionnaire was shared in specific groups on a community site accessible to 870 people. One hundred sixty-one people completed the questionnaire.

Results: Our study found that most regular athletes perform intellectual work; however, they typically perform sports activities only once a week. Most traditional athletes have a high school diploma, and the proportion of university graduates is relatively low. The research results also revealed that most people living in disadvantaged settlements prefer individual sports over team sports; however, this shows a significant difference in gender breakdown between men and women. The proportion of women who like individual sports is significantly higher, while this is reversed in the case of team sports.

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COMPLEX PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN BALL SPORTS

Assessing athletes' capabilities has never been as widespread as it is nowadays. Several methods have evolved and developed in recent decades to measure physical or mental skills accurately. However, these assessment protocols became more and more specific. They focused on a certain attribute, as if we forget that athletes' game performance... is not equal to the total of different skills. Since psychomotor skills interact during games, test protocols should be similar and measured comprehensively. Two groups of ball sport players, thirteen soccer players (n=13) and ten handball players (n=10), have been tested on the SpeedCourt training system to find a relationship between the results of two tests (Micromovement Test, MT) and traditional indicators, such as Heart Rate Recovery (HRR), Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat Percentage (BFP). Furthermore, the correlation in performances of the two groups has also been analyzed. We found no significant correlation between the two MT and HRR results (r=0,5132 and r=-0,5588). Similarly, there are significant correlation neither MT and BMI (r=-0.0886 and r=-0.0174) nor MT and BFP results (r=0.0872 and r=-0,2399). A significant difference cannot be found between the MT results of the two groups that indicate that MT applicable for both sports.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND FREE THROW AMONG ELITE YOUTH BASKETBALL PLAYERS

 

In our research, we compared the effectiveness of the penalty throw, one of the game's main elements that determine the effectiveness of basketball, with the level of mental toughness. In basketball, a penalty throw is a technical element that requires the most concentration in addition to the correc...t execution. The effectiveness of a penalty throw may be a decisive factor in a game. We assume that a skilled penalty thrower has a high degree of mental toughness since the main criteria are the motivation for success and maintaining appropriate self-confidence, even despite occasional failures. Our goal is to find any relationship between the two variables, thus helping the preparation of coaches and athletes. 

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INFLUENCING FACTORS OF SPORT VOLUNTEERING AMONG EU CITIZENS

If there were a ‘country of volunteers,’ it would be one of the most populous countries in the world, with almost 1 billion people involved in some form of volunteering worldwide. Volunteers play an essential role in the smooth running and operation of sports associations and the performance of the assigned tasks. Our research examines ...the extent to which they contribute to volunteering along with different socio-demographic variables. For our analysis, we used data from the European Commission in December 2017 in 28 European Member States (28,031 people). We used ten independent factors that may influence participation in volunteering. We examined by chi-square test whether there was a relationship with the performance of sports volunteering for the selected variables. Subsequently, incorporating all these variables into a logistic regression model, we estimated how much it contributes to volunteering. The significance level was p <0.05. Based on the results of the bivariate correlation study, gender, age, life satisfaction, frequency of sports, education, type of residence, and social status, social status significantly influences participation in sports volunteering (p <0.001). Based on a multivariate correlation study, demographic, quality of life, sports, socio-cultural, and socioeconomic variables significantly influence volunteering (p <0.001). Our research has demonstrated that participation in sports volunteering is affected by several factors. Our research did not cover the study of motivational factors of athletes.

 

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THE EXAMINATION OF JOINT TEMPERATURES AND PREVENTIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN E-SPORT- A PILOT STUDY

Our research aimed to determine what temperature changes occur along with the spinal segments during seated exercise and in which direction these temperature values change due to a preventive exercise program. This thesis aims to develop a thermographic analysis procedure to monitor the loads generated in and along the spine of mainly e-ath...letes and to investigate the effect of a preventive exercise program designed by the research team on the temperature values generated by the load. During our research, we conducted a study with three university students over several months. After an acclimatization period, the research subjects performed e-sport activities in a standardized temperature room while their back temperatures were monitored. The resulting thermograms were analyzed using ImageJ free-use image analysis software. The RGB-type thermograms were converted to 8-bit color depth, and the pixel intensity of the ROI (Range of interest) areas was measured. The following ROI areas were isolated during measurements: neck (C-cervical), back (T-thoracic), lumbar (L-lumbar), and muscle groups to the left (S-sinistrum) and right (D-dextrum) of these areas. Results were obtained at five-minute intervals. Our results showed that the intervention did not produce apparent changes. In two out of three subjects, the cervical section was the hottest, followed by the thoracic and lumbar areas. In general, surfaces to the left of the spinal regions were warmer than surfaces to the right.

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INVESTIGATION OF THE MOTIVATION OF THE SUPPORTERS IN VOLLEYBALL MATCHES IN THE EXAMPLE OF DEAC

In the present study, we investigated the motivation of people attending volleyball matches of the Debreceni Egyetemi Atlétikai Club. In our complex research, we investigate the passive sports consumption of teams competing in the spectator sports of the DEAC university club. The present study explicitly examines the spectatorship of volle...yball, as we are curious to discover whether the followers of different sports show different motivations. The method chosen for the research was a questionnaire delivered online to the target audience using the snowball method. The resulting sample of 128 respondents was relevant to the opinions of 54 respondents. Based on our previous research, we hypothesized that one of the main motivation factors would be the game's beauty and the sport's aesthetics. Our hypothesis was confirmed; our study found that not only one of the main factors but the most important motivating factor is the beauty of the sport; as in the present study, the aesthetics and excitement of volleyball was the most important motivating factor for the respondents.

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