Phyllotreta species (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Halticinae) rank among the most important horticultural pests in the Northern Hemisphere. Leaf damage caused by flea beetles upsets the water balance, blocks plant growth and sometimes causes a high level of mortality of seedlings. Several species are known to act as vectors of numerous p...athogens as well. Chemical communication plays an important role in the host finding, feeding and oviposition behaviour of flea beetles. In the first phase volatile mustard oils (isothiocyanates and thiocyanates) are released from the host plants through the decomposition of non-volatile glucosinolates (chemicals specific to Cruciferae) by myrosinase, and beetles are attracted to the source of release from a distance. Among the isothiocyanates, allyl isothiocyanate is the longest known and widespread compound utilized in the host-plant location of Phyllotreta species, but some species may have a stronger preference to other isothiocyanates or thiocyanates. The attractive effect of the plant volatiles is enhanced by the emission of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. The presence of such a pheromone was first demonstrated in Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze. In this species R5R,5aS)-1,1,5,8-tetramethy1-1,2,3,4,5,6,5a-heptahydrobenzo[1,2-a]annulene] was found to be the main pheromone component. Significant attraction by the pheromone was recorded only in the presence of ALLYL ITCN. The biological activity of the pheromone compound was connected to the plus (+) chirality. The same component seems to be occurring also in the pheromones of several other Phyllotreta spp. as well, suggesting a wider occurence in the genus. Once attracted by the joint effect of plant volatiles and aggregation pheromone, the presence of the non-volatile glucosinolates in the plant tissues is necessary for continuous feeding. Aggregations of flea beetles on suitable host plants, which result from the joint effects of plant-derived and pheromonal chemical cues detailed above may also be good rendez-vous occasions, increasing the probability of encounters with the opposite sex and mating in the vicinity of the optimal oviposition site. Due to the horticultural importance of Phyllotreta spp., deciphering details of their chemical communication has considerable significance in the development of new methods of integrated control.
Several plant bug species (Miridae) are important pests of crops and vegetables, thus monitoring them is of essential importance for effective pest control. During the current, preliminary study synthetic plant volatile combinations were tested in field conditions in Hungary in alfalfa fields. Beside semiochemical baited traps, sweep-netting wa...s also performed. In the experiments three plant bug species were found in higher numbers: Adelphocoris lineolatus, Lygus rugulipennis and L. pratensis. As a novel, interesting finding L. pratensis was attracted to phenylacetaldehyde baited traps. For all species, both males and females were trapped in all combinations. Sweep-netting and semiochemical baited traps showed different efficacy in case of the three species, as sweep-netting catches were highly biased for A. lineolatus, which indicates the higher efficacy of this method as compared to the tested semiochemical-baited traps. On the other hand, semiochemical baited showed better performance for L. rugulipennis and L. pratensis. For these species none of the tested combinations performed better than phenylacetaldehyde baited traps. The potential implication of results in view of monitoring are discussed.
The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water... requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.
In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and powdered cude drugs of Thymus vu...lgaris, Thymus pannonicus, Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officnalis and Salvia officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-30 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C) and time (5-60 min) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedur, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus pannonicus and Salvia officnalis, extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich thyme extracts were analysed by GC-FID. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.
In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile and nonvolatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles and nonvolatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and pow...dered cude drugs of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-50 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C), time (5-60 min) and the ratio of modifier (5-50% methanol) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedure, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich extracts were analysed by GC-FID, while extracts rich in nonvolatile compounds were analysed by HPLC. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.