Effect of aromatic cytokinins and explant position on shoot multiplication of Asparagus offi cinalis L.

Asparagus offi cinalis has been widely studied, but little information is available about its in vitro response to exogenous cytokinin during shoot multiplication. To study the effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of A. offi cinalis ‘Grolim’, in vitro culture was initiated from shoot segments cultured on media with Murashige and Skoog medium. Effects of different aromatic cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, 6-benzylaminopurine riboside and meta-topolin) applied in four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg/l) on shoot multiplication of ‘Grolim’ were tested. Effect of explant position (vertically or horizontally) on the shoot multiplication outcome was also studied. Both the length and the number of newly developed shoots were signifi cantly affected by explant position and cytokinin content of the medium. The highest numbers of shoots (4.9) were produced in the presence of 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine riboside when explants were paced horizontally onto the medium. Although the longest shoots (41.5 mm) developed on explants placed vertically onto medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 meta-topolin, the lengths of shoots developed on medium with 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine riboside were also adequate in both explant position (29.5 and 33.6 mm placed horizontally and vertically, respectively).

Effects of different cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from apple leaves of 'Royal Gala' and 'M.26'

The effects of different types of cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from leaf explants of apple scion 'Royal Gala' and apple rootstock 'M.26' were evaluated. Regeneration media contained either thidiazuron, or 6-benzylaminopurine, or meta-topolin, or zeatin, or kinetin, or their N9-ribosides, respectively, in the concentration range 0.5 to 8.0 mg 1-1. Effects of 'these cytokinins were evaluated on the percentage of regeneration (R%) and that of vitrification (V%) and on the number of regenerated shoots per explant (SN). Organogenetic index (0I) calculated from these data was used for the evaluation of efficacy of cytokinins. The course of shoot organogenesis also was followed using stereomicroscope. Types and concentrations of cytokinins applied in the regeneration media influenced each parameter significantly and the regeneration answer was strongly genotype-dependent. The best regeneration (SN: 11.08, 01: 7.5) was achieved in `Royal Gala' by using TDZ in concentration of 0.5 mg 1-1 (2.271,1M). There was a clear relationship between the effect on the regeneration efficacy and the chemical structure of cytokinins considering classical cytokinins, namely N9-ribosides applied in less concentration than non­ribosides have the same or best regeneration effects except for 6-benzylaminopurine riboside. However, similar relationship could not be detected in the case of 'M.26'. SN was the highest (3.22) using 6.5 mg 1-1 (18.2011M) 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or 8.0 mg 1-1 (21.44 µM) meta-topolin riboside (3.18). SN was not significantly lower (3.12) by using 2.0 mg 1-1 (9.08 1M) TDZ, however, OI was about half as big (0.63 compared to 1.29 or 1.74 with 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or meta-topolin riboside, respectively). 'Royal Gala' had higher organogenetic ability, than `M.26': 3.5-fold higher shoot number per explant and more than 4-fold higher organogenetic index was reached with this cultivar than with 'M.26'. Moreover, the similar developmental stage of shoots could be observed 3-5 days earlier than in 'M.26' and if explants of 'Royal Gala' were further cultured with 3 weeks, SN increased from 11.08 to 24.42 on TDZ-containing regeneration medium, which might suggest higher organogenetic ability, too.

Influence of aromatic cytokinins on shoot multiplication and their after-effects on rooting of apple cv. Húsvéti rozmaring

Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was affected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.

Single and dual effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of different apple scions

Shoot multiplication responses of three apple scions to different concentrations of BA and BAR as single source of cytokinins and in combination with two concentrations of KIN were studied. The effects of hormones depended on genotype, type and interactions of different cytokinins. Use of BAR significantly enhanced the shoot multiplication of cv. Jonagold (6.5 shoots per explant). The multiplication rate of cv. Jonagold could not be improved by using the combination of BAR and KIN. The best proliferation was achieved by 1.0 mg 1-1 BA combined with 1.0 mg 1-1 KIN of cv. Prima..(8.1) and of cv. Galaxy (10.4).The effect of 0.5 mg 1-1 BA along with 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN was similar on multiplication rate (10.9) of cv. Galaxy.

In vitro shoot multiplication of apple: comparative response of three rootstocks to cytokinines and auxin

Shoot multiplication responses of rootstocks cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H to different concentration of BA, BAR and IBA in eight various combinations were tested on MS-medium. The effect of hormones depended on genotype, type of cytokinin and interaction of cytokinin and auxin. Shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced with the use of BAR as cytokinin. High multiplication rate could be achieved in cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H: 7.7, 6.9 and 9.9 shoots per explant, respectively.