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  • Long-term analysis of River Tisza water level data with regard to the ecological water demand of floodplain water bodies
    16-32
    Views:
    247

    One of the main threats of our time is the increasing water demand not only globally, but also locally. These are often met at the expense of ecological water demand, jeopardizing the structural and operational conditions necessary to maintain good ecological status in aquatic and wetland habitats. This is why it is of great importance to explore possible water retention options. In 2019, based on the long-term data series on the water level of River Tisza, we studied the frequency and extent of flooding in the floodplain between Tiszabercel and Gávavencsellő, where there are valuable wetlands, including a ‘sanctuary’-type backwater. This was necessary because recently the floodplains have undergone negative changes. Their water volume has gradually decreased, their valuable wildlife has become rarer, some of them have completely dried out in the autumn and even one of them has burned out. From the analysis of the examined 48-years data, it could be concluded that flooding was relatively frequent in the sampled area, but the extent of water coverage had no significant effect either in space or time. It was also found that only water levels above 700 cm (based on the water meter of Tiszabercel, 98.36 mBf) could adequately ensure that the water bodies are filled up and flushed out. However, there is little chance of this, because of four reasons: (1) water levels of this height are becoming rare; (2) the duration and height of high water levels are mostly short in time; (3) water levels of several water bodies are artificially decreased; (4) the drainage effect of the River Tisza – which has been significantly incised after the river regulation – prevails in the area. Due to all, in the future, there would be a great need to maintain the water levels in the floodplain wetlands as efficiently as possible after the floods – for which we have made specific proposals for the places and methods to preserve the ecologically necessary amount of water.

  • Spatial and temporal pattern of soil pH and Eh and their impact on solute iron content in a wetland (Transdanubia, Hungary)
    34-45
    Views:
    42

    Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils. The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil and vegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation) and the pH, Eh of soils and solute iron in a headwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia, three patches and two species), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), common nettle (Urtica dioica). The spatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography, climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR). Root respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions) and higher pH values were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effects through plants on wetlands.

  • Mapping aquatic vegetation of the Rakamaz-Tiszanagyfalui Nagy-Morotva using hyperspectral imagery
    1-10
    Views:
    154

    Rapid development in remote sensing technologies provides more and more reliable methods for environmental assessment. For most wetlands, it is difficult to walk-in without disturbing the endangered species living there; therefore, application of opportunities provided by remote sensing has a great importance in population-mapping. One effective tool of vegetation pattern estimation is hyperspectral remote sensing, which can be used for association and species level mapping as well, due to high ground resolution. The Rakamaz-Tiszanagyfalui Nagy-morotva is an oxbow lake, located in the north-eastern part of Hungary. For this study, a wetland area of 1.17 km2 containing the original water bad and shoreline was selected. For the image analysis, images taken by an AISA DUAL system hyperspectral sensor were used. At the same time, 7 main vegetation classes were separated, which are typical for the sample plot designated on the test site. Classification was performed by the master areas signed by the most common associations of the Rakamaz-Tiszanagyfalui Nagy-morotva with determined spectrums. During the image analysis, SAM classification method was used, where radian values were optimized by the results of classification performed at the control area.