Vol 2, No 1 (2008)

Published March 18, 2019

Issue Description

Szegedi, S.: History of the meteorological observatoions in Debrecen

Tar, K. - Tóth, T. - Rózsavögyi, K.: Connection between the potential wind energy and the windy days

Papp, G.: Examinations on the air quality in Berehove (Beregszász, Ukraine) between 1997 and 2007

Szalai, Z.: Spatial and temporal pattern of soil pH and Eh and their impact on solute iron content in a wetland (Transdanubia, Hungary)

Liira, J. - Aavik, T. - Parrest, O. - Zobel, M.: Agricultural sector, rural environment and biodiversity in the Central and Eastern European EU member states

Zwierzchowska, I.: Interferences between the ecological network and urbanized areas in Poland

Orosz, Z. - Fazekas, I.: Challenges of municipal waste management in Hungary

##issue.tableOfContents##


Articles

History of the meteorological observatoions in Debrecen
1-5

Debrecen was among the first cities in Hungary where meteorological observatories were established,
although the weather station of our University was put into operation 80 years ago, Meteorological
observations have a much longer history in the city. In the present paper history of the meteorological
observations and stations worked i...n the city has been reviewed with special emphasis on the
meteorological observatory of the University of Debrecen.

Show full abstract
20
19
Connection between the potential wind energy and the windy days
6-24

Preliminary wind climate information are required for the selection of the sites of energetic wind
measurements. Optimal locations of wind energy projects, where the amount of utilizable wind
energy can be forecasted with a good approach, can be determined using GIS and statistical methods.
Anyhow, it is necessary to elaborate methods ...what make posible to gain data for the wind potential of
a given location on the base of measured data. Monthly number of windy days can be such predictor
if its basic statistical parameters and its connection to the monthly mean wind power can be
determined. This latter one can be substituted by the area under the curve of the function fitted to the
hourly averages of the cubes of the wind speeds. A regression modell is fitted to the monthly number
of windy days and areas under the curve, on the base of time series of 7 Hungarian weather stations
and the error of the modell is determined. On this base, the modell is extrapolated to a 35 years long
period. The area under the curve proportional to the monthly mean wind power calculated on the base
of the monthly number of windy days show a significant decreasing trend in 4 Hungarian weather
stations.

Show full abstract
24
11
Examinations on the air quality in Berehove (Beregszász, Ukraine) between 1997 and 2007
25-33

First results of the examinations on the air quality in Beregszász (Ukraine) are presented in the
present paper. Data sets of air quality monitoring network in Beregszász were provided by the
Beregszász township office of National Health Service of Ukraine. Monitoring network consists of
five stations in the industrial residential a...nd recreational districts of the town. Measurements were
carried out between 1995 and 2007 in the heating and in the non heating seasons. Spatial and seasonal
distributions of SO2, NO2 and particulate matter were analyzed using the Student t-test.

Show full abstract
24
14
Spatial and temporal pattern of soil pH and Eh and their impact on solute iron content in a wetland (Transdanubia, Hungary)
34-45

Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils.
The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil and
vegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation) and the pH,
Eh of soils and solute iron in a hea...dwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have
been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia,
three patches and two species), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), common nettle (Urtica dioica). The
spatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography,
climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the
shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR). Root
respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured
individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown
seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions) and higher pH values
were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants
causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an
essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effects
through plants on wetlands.

Show full abstract
28
57
Agricultural sector, rural environment and biodiversity in the Central and Eastern European EU member states
46-64

During the second half of the 20th century, agriculture and the rural environment diverged in Western
and Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). CEE countries itself are heterogeneous in the
respect of land use intensity and history. In the current review we focus on the comparison of the
agricultural sector and threats on biod...iversities of EU new-member countries from Central and
Eastern Europe and the old EU(15) member states. The clustering of countries revealed groups
distinguished according to the level of their economic productivity, discriminating mostly among
eastern and western European countries. CEE countries sub-divided according to geographic region,
including also some old members of the EU. Within the western cluster, two large sub-clusters
became evident according to economy affected by altitudinal and climatic differences. Partly because
there are still areas where the intensity of land use remained low, the biological diversity in many
regions of Central and Eastern Europe has remained high. However, loss of extensively used habitats,
the restoration on intensive agriculture, reforestation with exotic species and urbanization are major
threats to nature in CEE countries. The estimated variability among CEE countries is caused by
different historical and cultural backgrounds of those countries. Due to the complexity and
geographical diversity of driving forces, there remains much uncertainty in the possible impacts of
particular factors on land use. This complexity and diversity have to be considered when planning
economic as well as ecological means for developing the agricultural sector and conserving
biodiversity in the future of CEE countries.

Show full abstract
19
87
Interferences between the ecological network and urbanized areas in Poland
65-77

This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links
between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns
and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data.
Valuable habitats and links between the...m, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes
sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of
Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on
the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable
habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is
most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with
the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic
land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a
population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of
their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north western
Poland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed
identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological network
should be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of
valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.

Show full abstract
19
14
Challenges of municipal waste management in Hungary
78-85

Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were
defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in
Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most
important areas are related to the developing projects... of municipal solid waste treatment (increasing
the capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building
of new composting plants). The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the
prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic
recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We
inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The
main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass
packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary
financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national
waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of
national waste management on the short and long term?

Show full abstract
23
222
View All Issues