Vol 1, No 1 (2007)

Published March 17, 2019

Issue Description

Tombácz, Sz. - Makra, L.: Relation of meteorological elements and air pollutants to respiratory diseases

Eötvös, T. - Makra, L.: Chemical and biological air pollutants, as parameters of complex air quality indices

Braun, M. - Margitai, Z. - Tóth, A. - Leermakers, M.: Environmental monitoring using linden tree leaves as natural traps of atmospheric deposition: a pilot study in Transilvania, Romania

Babka, B. - Szabó, Sz.: Water chemical analysis of the oxbow lakes near the Upper-Tisza River

Linkeviciene, R. - Taminskas, J. - Simanauskiene, R.: Protected areas in regions of intensive economical activity: conflict of nature protection and nature use (case study of Dovine river catchment)

Szegedi, S.: Heavy metal loads in the soil of Debrecen

Stone, D.: Big plans and little plans: delivering land use change designed by landscape ecology

Csorba, P. - Bodnár, R.: The European Landscape Convention and tourism

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Articles

Relation of meteorological elements and air pollutants to respiratory diseases
1-15

This paper determines the characteristic weather types over the Carpathian Basin for the summer –
early autumn period (July 15 – October 15) and the winter months (December, January, and
February), with the levels of chemical (CO, NO, NO2 , NO2/NO, O3, O3max, SO2, PM10) and biological
[Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen] air pollutants, and... with their effect to the respiratory diseases. Based on
the ECMWF data set, daily sea-level pressure fields analysed at 00 UTC (Coordinated Universal
Time) were prepared for each weather type (cluster) in order to detect the relation between, on the one
hand, the sea-level pressure patterns and, on the other, the levels of the chemical and biological air
pollutants as well as the frequency of the respiratory diseases in Szeged. Objective definition of the
characteristic weather types occurred by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis.
As a result, in the summer – early autumn period the total patient number is proportional to the mean
monthly temperature, the maximum and minimum temperatures; however, respiratory diseases occur
more frequently, when relative humidity is low. On the other hand, in the winter months there is no
relation between the meteorological variables and the patient numbers.

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21
13
Chemical and biological air pollutants, as parameters of complex air quality indices
16-23

Human health is essentially influenced by air quality. Atmospheric air in residential areas contains
many pollutants. The monitoring and the plain publishing of the measured values are important both
for the authorities and the public. Air quality is often characterized by constructing air quality indices,
and these indices are used to... inform the public. The construction of an advanced air quality index is
usually done by averaging the measured data usually in time and space; hereby important aspects of
the data can be lost. All known indices contain only chemical pollutants, while certain biological
pollutants can enhance the effects of the chemical pollutants and vice versa. In this paper we discuss
the importance of integrating biological pollutants into air quality indices. In order to increase
efficacy of these indices to the civil society we aim to introduce geographic information system (GIS)
methods into publishing air quality information.

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15
10
Environmental monitoring using linden tree leaves as natural traps of atmospheric deposition: a pilot study in Transilvania, Romania
24-35

Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have
been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the more
usual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition.
Elemental composition of dust deposit...ed onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban
environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate
the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia
platyphyllos) were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by
ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing
and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function
values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which
showed a systematic geographic distribution.

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63
61
Water chemical analysis of the oxbow lakes near the Upper-Tisza River
36-42

The Tisza river plays an important role in the life of Eastern Hungary. Beside the river there are several oxbow lakes, cut off meanders. In this paper the water quality of these lakes was examined from
the section of Tarpa to Rakamaz. 45 oxbow lakes were sampled and the chemical parameters were
determined. Sodium was used as a pollutant ...(sewage water) indicator and 2 lakes were found extremely polluted. The lakes outside the dam were slightly polluted because of the lack of renewal of
the water body and the ones in the active floodplain had good quality parameters.

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24
18
Protected areas in regions of intensive economical activity: conflict of nature protection and nature use (case study of Dovine river catchment)
43-56

Nature protection and economical activity clash of interests is analysed on the example of Dovinė
River catchment, situated in the south western part of Lithuania. It is a unique wetland complex consisting from Žuvintas Lake and the surrounding bogs (Fig. 1). Žuvintas Lake became the first protected area in Lithuania in 1937. However, the... lake is situated in one of the most fertile region of
Lithuania, where the methods of intensive farming activity is being employed for a long time. Eutrophication processes and overgrowth of this shallow lake has been very active during the several decades and the lake has lost its ecological value. Therefore the main goal of this article is to analyse the
anthropogenic influence towards the water bodies and protected natural values situated in the territory
of intensive economical activity. Cartographical material of different periods is being used for the
evaluation of the hydrographical network transformations in Dovinė River catchment. Hydrochemical
parameters of the periods 1953–1954, 1960–1961, 1980–1982; 1993–2003; 2004–2005 of the water
bodies in Dovinė River catchment are being analysed. The field works in order to investigate the
water quality in Dovinė River and it‘s tributaries were made in spring of 2005. Water samples were
analysed in laboratory of the Institute of Geology and Geography according water quality analysis
methods approved by Lithuanian Ministry of Environment (Table 2). Water quality was evaluated
according maximum residue limits (MRL) in surface waters (Table 3). The results of the study
showed that although Žuvintas Lake is being protected for 70 years, the farming activity intensified
constantly in its catchment. Canalised river beds and sluice–regulated hydrological regime of the
lakes diminished the natural self–cleaning abilities of the water system. The average annual decrease
of the lake specular surface was about 1,1 ha in the period of 1961–2003. The average annual increase
of vegetation area is about 0,14 ha. Even a strong protection regime did not preserve this territory.
Therefore, in order to keep the sustainable development in the protected territories the anthropogenic
loading from the neighbouring territories (catchment area, etc) must be evaluated. The objectives of
nature protection in protected territory could not be attained if there is no regulation of economical
activity in the territories surrounding the protected area.

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24
9
Heavy metal loads in the soil of Debrecen
57-67

Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil
of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects
of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy
metal content of the soils hav...e been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.
Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the
sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the
flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the
forested area of the Nagyerdő were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the
soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, CalciumCarbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution) on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the
soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy
soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds,
recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

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15
15
Big plans and little plans: delivering land use change designed by landscape ecology
68-74

In this paper I describe some of the ways in which landscape ecology principles have been incorporated into land use planning and change. In Scotland we have tried developing landscape-scale or
regional plans for land use change to resolve issues of habitat fragmentation – the ‘big plans’ of the
title. We have also developed ‘litt...le plans’ – much smaller proposals based on individual designated
sites. My conclusion is that both of these approaches are weak in directing land use change at the
scale necessary, and that a system which ‘scores’ land manager-generated proposals is a more useful
new approach.

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19
12
The European Landscape Convention and tourism
75-84

On 17 September 2007 the Hungarian Parliament passed the act that put into force the European
Landscape Convention and it will be operative in the country from 1 January 2008. There are
decision on the renewal of the functioning of the National Committee, which has a scientific
workgroup, in connection with the promulgation process of ...the Landscape Convention. Due to its
high importance, tourism can be the sector that fully recognize the role of landscapes relevant to
the ideas outlined by the Convention.

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