A Pozsonyi Evangélikus Líceum felsőfokú hallgatói 1714-1851 - recenzió
From Krakow to Wittenberg. Students from the Hungarian Kingdom at the Universities of Krakow, Vienna and Wittenberg in the 16th Century. This paper aims at collecting the students from the Hungarian Kingdom at the universities of Krakow, Vienna and Wittenberg in the 16th century. According to the medieval traditio...ns, the majority of the students attended the university of Vienna and Krakow (90%) in the first quarter of the 16th century. After the battle of Mohács (1526), the situation changed
basically, and in the second period up to 1550, the University of Wittenberg started to rise, however, the total number of the peregrinating students decreased significantly. After 1550 the peregrination from the Hungarian Kingdom started to increase, however, its magnitude reached the level of the beginning of the 16th century again only in the 17th century. The heyday of the University of Wittenberg dates back to the second part of the 16th century, when the university of Krakow was hardly attended by any students of the Hungarian Kingdom. Whereas the universities of Vienna and Krakow attracted the students originated from the institutions’ neighbourhood, the university of Wittenberg was attended by the Saxons and it was also popular with the burghers of Debrecen. All the three universities had an organization for the students who came from the Hungarian Kingdom. However, the one of Vienna (Natio Hungarica) was not a national college in its modern sense; the one of Krakow (Bursa Hungarorum) was considereda national community in the first half of the 20th century. On the other hand, it seems more acceptable, that those students were its members, who originated far from Krakow. The college of Wittenberg (Coetus Ungaricus) was considered a national community, but its students must have chosen it because of their religious convictions, since many of them were engaged in the new ideas of the Reformation. Meanwhile, the most-known reformers from the 16th century attended these three universities, mainly Wittenberg. Both the first Hungarian Calvinist bishop, Márton Sánta Kálmáncsehi (Krakow 1523) and ‘the Hungarian Luther’, Mátyás Bíró Dévai (Krakow 1523, Wittenberg, 1528), moreover Ferenc Dávid (Wittenberg 1545), the founder and the first bishop of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania appeared at these universities.
learned Medical doctors of the Medieval hungarian KingdoM. he present paper aims at collecting the particulars of medical doctors of the medieval Hungarian kingdom, primarily the ones belonging to persons who attended a university. he research had to reckon with the fact that the doctors were referred to in the re...spective sources by several Latin names (doctor in medicine, medicus, physicus, barbitonsor, etc.) but not all of these refer to a person who attended a university. We accept only the person as a learned doctor whose university attendance can be documented either by his presence in the matricula of a university or by his degree mentioned in a source. Another attendant problem was the deinition of Hungarian, since, for example, most doctors practising in the royal court came from abroad but owing to their service they often gained Hungarian citizenship or, moreover, nobility. After examinig these questions we managed to collect 69 persons who have evidence of their studies or graduation from 1226 till 1525, mainly from the second part of the 15th century or the irst quarter of the 16th century. heir prosopographical data can be found in the Database at the end of the paper. Most of the students studied medicine in Vienna (22 persons) or at an
Italian university (31 persons) and almost half of them gained a degree (35 persons). In accordance with the present phase of the research most doctors had an ecclesiastical career, mainly as a canon (12 persons), however, a few of them practised as municipal physicians (15 persons).